• The Cannabis Youth Treatment Study: Implications for Employee Assistance Programs

      White, William L., 1947-; Sharar, David A., 1961-; Dennis, Michael, Ph.D.; Donaldson, Jean, M.A. (2002)
      A resurgence of youthful illicit drug experimentation during the past decade has sparked an increase in the number of drug-related evaluations and consultations conducted by employee assistance (EA) professionals. One of the most frequent and troublesome of such requests involves the parent who is concerned about his or her child’s experimentation with cannabis (marijuana, hashish, blunts). During the past two decades, America has witnessed the increased availability and potency of cannabis and a significant lowering of the age of onset of regular cannabis use. American teenagers report more past-month cannabis use than all other illicit substances combined and more daily use of cannabis than alcohol. These changes have brought an increase in cannabis-related problems among young people. Cannabis is now the leading substance reported in adolescent arrests, emergency room admissions, and public treatment admissions, the latter having increased 115% (from 51,081 to 109, 875) between 1992 to 1998.iii These changes have brought an increase in cannabis-related problems among young people and concerns about how to address these problems within the family, school, workplace, and the wider community.
    • Community-level and Individual-level Predictors of Variation in Rates of Homelessness among Youth Transitioning Out of Foster Care

      Sneddon, Dori; Bright, Charlotte Lyn (2019)
      Youth who age out of foster care are a known high-risk subgroup for homelessness. Studies estimate between 19% and 36% of youth experience homelessness shortly after emancipation. This study examined homelessness among youth transitioning out of foster care by incorporating individual-level and county-level influences to better understand the risk of homelessness among this population. Multilevel models and generalized estimating equation models were constructed to include both individual- and county-level variables. Data were obtained from multiple national datasets: the 2011-2015 National Youth in Transition Database (NYTD), 2011 Adoption and Foster Care Analysis and Reporting System (AFCARS), University of Wisconsin’s County Health Rankings & Roadmaps Data and the 2013 U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Rural-Urban Continuum Code data file. The analytic sample included 3,968 youth who responded to the NYTD Wave 1 (age 17), Wave 2 (age 19) and Wave 3 (age 21) survey. Of the sample, 35.3% experienced homelessness between 17 – 21 years old. Findings indicated statistically significant variation between counties in the proportion of youth who become homeless. Multiple individual-level factors were found to predict homelessness between ages 17 – 21. Prior homelessness, substance use history, and incarceration had a positive relationship with risk of homelessness. Connection with a caring adult, enrollment in school, and employment were inversely related to risk of homelessness. Specific to foster care experience, number of placements and age of entry had a positive relationship with risk of homelessness. Being in foster care at age 19 and at age 21 were related to a reduced risk of homelessness. Not as hypothesized, receipt of independent living services had a positive relationship with homelessness. None of the county-level indicators had a statistically significant relationship to the homelessness outcome. Policy and practice implications for child welfare include extending foster care, capturing housing histories and prioritizing housing plans for youth, and targeting intensive services to youth at the highest risk of homelessness. Future research to further examine socioeconomic community- and state-level predictors of homelessness among this population inform homelessness prevention and housing strategies for youth aging out of foster care. Suggested areas for improvement in NYTD data are also discussed.
    • Maryland Mobile Crisis and Stabilization Services - Essential Components

      University of Maryland, Baltimore. School of Social Work. Institute for Innovation & Implementation (2012-12-20)
    • Maryland's First Unaccompanied Homeless Youth & Young Adult Count: Findings from Youth REACH MD Phase 2

      Shannahan, Ryan; Harburger, Deborah Sarah; Unick, George Jay; Greeno, Elizabeth J.; Shaw, Terry V. (University of Maryland, Baltimore. School of Social Work. Institute for Innovation & Implementation, 2016-05)
      Every night in Maryland, thousands of youth and young adults living on their own turn to their a friend's couch, a stranger's house, a vacant building, the street, or some other tenuous or unsuitable location for a place to sleep. These are unaccompanied homeless youth - youth or young adults under 25 years old who are not in the care of their parents or guardians and lack access to safe, adequate, and reliable housing. We know these youth are individuals with their own stories and experiences and that they are not defined by their housing status. This report—and all of the work of Youth REACH MD—is designed to identify the common challenges and barriers that result in youth and young adults experiencing homelessness in order to end youth homelessness. No finding, statement, or analysis in this report should be taken to diminish the importance of the voices of youth and young adults or to minimize the individual experiences, preferences, and vision for the future that each youth and young adult has for themselves. This report reflects the aggregate findings regarding a diverse population of youth and young adults who were willing share of themselves by participating in this survey, and we are grateful to them for sharing their stories and experiences with us and for helping us to gain new and deeper understanding of what it means to experience homelessness.