• Counseling versus Coaching: How do I decide?

      Molinari, Marsha (Vital WorkLife, 2021-09)
      How do I know if I need a counselor or a coach? it is important to know the difference between coaching and counseling and what you want to accomplish.
    • Forgiveness and psychotherapy

      Stipe, Ann Marie; DiBlasio, Frederick A. (1995)
      Forgiveness as a concept has been examined in the field of religion, philosophy, law, medicine, and the social sciences. In contrast, the literature on forgiveness and its role in psychotherapy is in its developmental infancy. Evidence thus far suggests that forgiveness has a definite impact on clients' individual and relational well being, yet the literature displays gaps in social work research, qualitative research, quantitative research, and generally research investigating the process of forgiveness in any sense. The purpose of this qualitative "grounded theory" field study was to explore psychotherapists' perceptions of forgiveness as it relates to psychotherapy. Fourteen psychotherapists from various out-patient counseling agencies participated. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with each participant in three rounds of data collection. Common themes from each round were identified. The constant comparative method was used to develop the final working hypotheses which eventually became "grounded theory". Spiritual orientation was unanimously identified by psychotherapists as having an impact on their perceptions of forgiveness. Psychotherapists from four spiritual perspectives participated: Unitarian, Jewish, self spirituality with a Christian foundation and traditional Christian orientation. Results indicate there are differences and similarities among psychotherapists of various spiritual orientations. There were similar perspectives regarding definition and agreement that forgiveness is an important process in psychotherapy that results in many benefits for the clients. Examining differences among spiritual orientations resulted in the discovery of a spiritual bias to which all psychotherapists agreed. Psychotherapists from traditional Christian orientation were more likely to use the word "forgiveness" in psychotherapy than those from other perspectives. Psychotherapists identified the connection of forgiveness to Judeo-Christian values as their reason for avoiding the word even though they were facilitating the forgiveness process with clients. This also was offered as the explanation for the paucity in the professional literature. Implications of these findings include recommendations for practice and research. The importance of the forgiveness process in psychotherapy was confirmed. Various components of the forgiveness process are outlined and the practitioner is alerted to possible spiritual bias. Additional research is needed to confirm these findings and to further explore the role of forgiveness in social work practice.

      Leitch, Judith; Lee, Bethany R.; 0000-0002-6201-5609 (2017)
      Background. Research indicates that practice behaviors with gay and lesbian clients are determined by practitioners' knowledge, skills, attitudes, self-efficacy, and beliefs. It is currently unknown how these determinants relate to practice with other sexual and gender minority (SGM) clients such as bisexual and gender minority (GM) clients. Additionally, measurement in this area is limited as the current standard measure of affirmative practice has been criticized for a lack of validity. Purpose. The current study has five goals: 1) To learn about how determinants of practice differ when working with SGM sub-groups, 2) To determine how affirmative practice behaviors differ between SGM subgroups, 3) To refine the current model of practice with SGM clients by differentiating between knowledge and skills, 4) To test the interaction between client type and practice determinant, and 5) To establish basic psychometric properties of the LGBT Competency Assessment Tool (LGBT-CAT), a new way to measure practice behavior with SGM clients. Method. A cross-sectional design was used to learn about participant's practice via an online survey. Participants included practicing social workers (N =357) completing a measures about their practices with either lesbian and gay male clients, bisexual clients, or GM clients. Results. Participants had more positive attitudes about lesbian and gay male clients than GM clients, and greater skills in working with lesbian and gay male clients than in working with either bisexual or GM clients. Engagement in affirmative practice behaviors did not vary between client types. Knowledge and skills appear to be different but related constructs in their relationship with clinical practice with SGM clients. No interaction was found between practice determinant and client type in predicting practice behavior. In a model of practice determinants with all SGM clients, both skills and self-efficacy were significant predictors of positive practice behaviors. The LGBT-CAT demonstrated good reliability and basic psychometric properties. Conclusion. Client type should be considered when educating and training practitioners to work with SGM clients. Both knowledge and skills should be included in future practice models with SGM clients, and research should be done to improve measurement in this content area.