Browsing School of Social Work by Subject "Longitudinal method"
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20 Years of EAP Cost-Benefit Research - Part 2 of 3: Taking the Pareto Path to ROIThe second paper in 3-part series honoring the 20-year anniversary of the McDonnell Douglas internal EAP program research study that examined changes in health care claims, employee accidents and other outcomes for small samples of high-risk counseling clients. This article review literature and logical arguments in favor of this kind of approach to ROI for EAP - finding high-value cost savings for small numbers of high-risk employees who use EAP counseling. This approach emphasizes the classic EAP Core Technology principles. Some studies have shown that EAPs have a positive financial impact that offsets their cost, but few of these studies have been pubished in peer-review journals.
The Impact of Behavioral Screening and Employee Assistance Program (EAP) -like Interventions on Health Outcomes and Estimated Expenditures in a Community Healthcare Clinic Setting and an Employment SettingThere is considerable evidence that employee assistance programs (EAPs) mitigate stress levels associated with common life struggles, which if unaddressed, may lead to chronic stress and disease (Attridge, 2012). There is also good evidence that Behavioral Screening and Intervention (BSI) programs, that screen and treat individuals for depression, substance use, and smoking improve health outcomes and reduce healthcare expenditures (Babor, McRee, Kassebaum Grimaldi, Ahmed, & Bray, 2007; Bray, Zarkin, Davis, Mitra, Higgins-Biddle, & Babor, 2007; Saitz, Saitz, Larson, LaBelle, Richardson, & Samet, 2008). We hypothesized that a hybrid model that combined EAP services with BSI would produce substantial positive health outcomes and reduce healthcare cost expenditures. We further hypothesized that such an approach would work equally well with patients in a community health center and employees at a workplace. The goal of this project was to demonstrate that these efforts could be carried out successfully in both settings and to either confirm or refute the hypothesis that such interventions would improve health outcomes and reduce healthcare expenditures. The results of our research confirmed both hypotheses. Our short-term interventions resulted in profound improvements in multiple health outcome indicators, and these improvements were sustained over time. These outcomes were achieved in both settings. Outcomes included significant reductions in depression, smoking behavior, alcohol use, drug use and increased exercise and report of overall wellbeing. As we demonstrate in this report, the improvements in health outcomes observed, coupled with studies that clearly link and quantify the relationship between such improvements and reduced healthcare costs, enable us to project specific healthcare cost savings that will result from these interventions.
“I’m Doing Everything Right All Over Again”: How Women Manage Exiting Street Prostitution Over TimeExiting the criminalized sale of sex, which we refer to as prostitution, is a complex, recursive process which has been rarely studied longitudinally. Using typical case sampling, we selected two respondents from a two-year ethnographic study of a court-affiliated diversion program in Philadelphia who participated in a total of eight interviews. Saldaña’s (2009) seldom-used longitudinal coding method was applied to conduct a fine-grained analysis of participants’ perceptions of exiting prostitution over time, focusing on participants’ motivations and actions. Respondents managed expectations of others and themselves and their sense of self-worth within a context of changing relationships, structural opportunities, accomplishments and setbacks. Viewed in a longitudinal context, the same relationships and structural hurdles often had a different impact on women’s motivation to exit at different time points. We argue that a longitudinal perspective of the exiting process is critical to avoid erroneous binary classifications of women as either exiters or non-exiters from prostitution, as the exiting process is more complex than what cross-sectional studies have previously revealed. Findings have implications for researchers of prostitution and programs for women exiting prostitution that should structure supports and (dis)incentives in a nonjudgmental fashion in line with this nuanced understanding of exiting over time. This is particularly important in criminal justice settings, where punitive responses have serious short- and long-term consequences.
WOS Research: Highlights of the 2021 Workplace Outcome Suite Annual ReportThis 60-minute presentation focuses on the 2021 Annual Report for the Workplace Outcome Study with global data from over 50 EAP industry providers and 39,000 cases with pre and post-longitudinal data. This benchmarking project is sponsored by LifeWorks and endorsed by EAPA.