• 20 Years of EAP Cost-Benefit Research - Part 2 of 3: Taking the Pareto Path to ROI

      Attridge, Mark (Employee Assistance Professionals Association (EAPA), 2010-07)
      The second paper in 3-part series honoring the 20-year anniversary of the McDonnell Douglas internal EAP program research study that examined changes in health care claims, employee accidents and other outcomes for small samples of high-risk counseling clients. This article review literature and logical arguments in favor of this kind of approach to ROI for EAP - finding high-value cost savings for small numbers of high-risk employees who use EAP counseling. This approach emphasizes the classic EAP Core Technology principles. Some studies have shown that EAPs have a positive financial impact that offsets their cost, but few of these studies have been pubished in peer-review journals.
    • EAP at a Crossroads Pandemic Drives Business – but What’s Next?

      Pompe, John C. (EAPA, 2021-08)
      The COVID-19 pandemic has brought significant emotional and social strain on employees and left employers looking to their EAPs for ways to expand support for their employees’ health. This heightened focus has resulted in unanticipated growth in the world of workplace mental health. Stigma around mental health has reduced and the demand for EAP services has increased. And yet EAPs find themselves under scrutiny, with skepticism about their value and readiness to respond. Mental health encompasses a broad range of conditions, from the routine to the disabling. In the context of the workplace, such problems present a significant cost burden in terms of HR and leader- ship time, organizational effectiveness, safety risks, and increased healthcare costs. EAPs are sold as a potential solution. When the EAP concept took hold roughly 50 years ago, they were delivered by actual employees of a given organization who engaged in a variety of supportive roles to help employees and mitigate the risks brought on by employee mental health and substance abuse. Over time, internal EA professionals began collaborating with HR, occupational health, wellness, security, and safety professionals to support functions such as: performance management, drug testing, fitness-for-duty, threat assessment, health promotion, and critical incident response.
    • An Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Extended-Release Naltrexone

      Hochheimer, Martin; Sacco, Paul; Unick, George Jay; 0000-0001-6644-4841 (2022)
      Medications for the treatment of opioid use disorder (MOUDs) are considered the gold standard form of treatment for this condition. There are two forms of MOUD treatment, agonist, and antagonist. Agonist treatment has the medical system provide people with opioid use disorder methadone or buprenorphine which are long lasting opioids that do not produce a euphoric reaction with the goal of alleviating cravings and mitigating illicit use of opioids. Conversely, antagonist treatment blocks opioid absorption in the brain. Extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX) is the most common antagonist treatment it is administered as a once-monthly injection. During the month after injection, patients who use opioids will not experience their effect and by negating the reward of opioid use the treatment discourages continued use. This study evaluated the effectiveness of buprenorphine and XR-NTX treatment on three characteristics: treatment retention, risk of opioid related acute care incidents, and changes in healthcare costs during treatment. Data from the Truven Health MarketScan® databases which records the date, type of interaction, and cost of every interaction that a person insured privately with one of over 250 insurance providers has with the healthcare system was used to identify a sample of approximately 30,000 people who were treated with buprenorphine or and 617 who were treated with XR-NTX for opioid use disorder. Treatment episodes were constructed based on filled prescription information and a frailty model survival analysis was fit both to a matched sample and the whole sample to length of treatment for each medication. The risk of acute care incidents was evaluated using a generalized estimating equation, and healthcare costs were evaluated using fixed-effects regression models. The study found that there are no significant differences in treatment retention between the MOUDS. Treatment with either medication was associated with an approximately 10% reduction, per day in treatment, of the odds of experiencing an acute care incident during one month. Healthcare costs increased while people were in treatment, with either MOUD, between approximately 0.85% and 1.5% for both opioid related and non-opioid related services.
    • Integration Insights Column #3: EAP Partnerships Across Health Care Segments

      Attridge, Mark (Employee Assistance Professionals Association (EAPA), 2015-07-01)
      This column focuses on cost-based segments of care across the health care continuum – ranging from prevention to chronic disease. This is how employers “see” their overall health care costs each year. Understanding this view can help EAPs to better position their services as a partner to other programs in each cost segment.
    • Integration Insights Column #8: EAP Integration with Behavioral Health Risk Management

      Attridge, Mark (Employee Assistance Professionals Association (EAPA), 2017-10)
      This column addresses the integration of EAPs with other workplace services. Today’s topic explores what employee assistance providers can do to better manage the behavioral health risks of the workplaces they serve.
    • Mental Health in the Labour Force: A Literature Review and Research GAP Analysis [White Paper & Slides]

      Attridge, Mark; Ricciuti, Joseph; Durant, Gregory; DeBortolli, Karen; Clarkson, Adam; Steacy, Ramona; Ausqui, José (Watson Wyatt Canada ULC, 2007-05)
      Mental health and alcohol abuse disorders are the sleeping giant of health care in modern society. These disorders create immense problems for the individuals with these conditions and for the companies who employ them. There is now a substantial research base that informs this important health challenge. This project was undertaken to synthesize the current research literature from North America in order to take stock of what is known today and to identify gaps in this knowledge. These gaps form the basis for recommendations for future research and for employer action. This project is being advanced by Homewood and the Global Business and Economic Roundtable on Addiction and Mental Health on behalf of the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR). Also - findings presnted at the 2nd Canadian Congress on Research and Mental Health and the Workplace, Vancouver, BC, Canada (see SLIDES).
    • The Opioid Epidemic: A Team Based Approach to Prevention

      Bennett, Joel B. (WorldatWork, 2018-01)
      We are in the grips of an opioid epidemic. You only need to peek under the surface to see that the pain giving rise to addiction is both psychological and societal. National studies show increases in suicide rates, alcoholism, depression, sleep, fatigue and stress. Now add in the rise of stress-related disorders, positive drug-test rates and social polarization, and it's clear the effect on worker health and productivity is serious.
    • The Value of Employee Assistance Programs - 2009 EASNA Research Brief

      Attridge, Mark (Employee Assistance Society of North America (EASNA), 2009-12)
      A brief report that summarizes key points from research relevant to the business value of employee assistance programs (EAPs). A companion report to the full-length Purchasers' Guide to EAPs from EASNA (2009).
    • The Value of Employee Assistance Programs - 2012 EASNA Research Brief

      Attridge, Mark (Employee Assistance Society of North America (EASNA), 2012)
      A brief report that summarizes key points from research relevant to the business value of employee assistance programs (EAPs). Revised from 2009 original version.