• 20 Years of EAP Cost-Benefit Research - Part 2 of 3: Taking the Pareto Path to ROI

      Attridge, Mark (Employee Assistance Professionals Association (EAPA), 2010-07)
      The second paper in 3-part series honoring the 20-year anniversary of the McDonnell Douglas internal EAP program research study that examined changes in health care claims, employee accidents and other outcomes for small samples of high-risk counseling clients. This article review literature and logical arguments in favor of this kind of approach to ROI for EAP - finding high-value cost savings for small numbers of high-risk employees who use EAP counseling. This approach emphasizes the classic EAP Core Technology principles. Some studies have shown that EAPs have a positive financial impact that offsets their cost, but few of these studies have been pubished in peer-review journals.
    • 20 Years of EAP Cost-Benefit Research - Part 3 of 3: Taking the Productivity Path to ROI

      Attridge, Mark (Employee Assistance Professionals Association (EAPA), 2010-10)
      The final article in a three-part series of outcomes in employee assistance in 20 years since pioneering applied research study by internal EAP program at McDonnell Douglas Corporation in the United States. This article reviews large-size studies (N > 26,000; N >59,000; N > 3,500) that measured improvements in work absenteeism and work productivity by users of EAP counseling. The main idea is that rather than emphasizing the potential for healthcare cost savings derived from small part of EAP cases that are more high risk (for alcohol/drug or psychiatric disorders) - as was examined in the McDonnell Douglas study and called the "pareto path" to value - it makes more sense to focus on the large percentage of EAP cases that have workplace-based cost savings form reduced absenteeism and restored productivity after counseling.
    • The "Age Wave" is Here: Aging Parents is Vital EAP Issue

      Epstein, Barry D. (The Journal of Employee Assistance, 2014-12)
      “As the American population ages, employee assistance professionals have an opportunity to become advocates of proactive planning as opposed to simply providing interventions when needed.”
    • Answering 10 Questions: EAP Reports Should Answer 10 Basic Questions that Drive Purchaser Expectations About the Value of Employee Assistance Services.

      Attridge, Mark (Employee Assistance Professionals Association (EAPA), 2007-07)
      Strategic discussion of best practices in collecting data, conducting analyses and presenting results of annual utilization for employer customers of employee assistance program services.
    • Applying the logic model process to Employee Assistance Programming

      Csiernik, Rick; Chaulk, Paul; McQuaid, Steve; McKeon, Kate (2015-08-04)
      Logic Models are a program development and evaluation process that evolved in the latter half of the 20th century. As well as having the capacity to be a planning tool, Logic Models also allow for an in depth, multi-layered examination of an existing program. This article outlines the purpose, historic development, and strengths and weaknesses of this contemporary evaluation approach that has been increasingly utilized in the social services. An example of how the Logic Model evaluation process can be applied to an Employee Assistance Program is also provided.
    • Best Practices for Employee Assistance Program (EAP) and Technology-Based Workplace Mental Health Resources

      Attridge, Mark (International Foundation of Employee Benefit Plans., 2021-08-18)
      Key Parts: Increased need for a range of benefits to support employee mental health after COVID-19 Research on the effectiveness of brief treatment through EAP counseling Research on the effectiveness of remote access to counselors via technology and newer machine-only resources (Internet, iCBT, Apps) The need for greater integration of traditional and technology-based supports for mental health
    • Best Practices in Customer Reporting to Demonstrate Value and Impact for EAP Services

      Attridge, Mark (2019-03-07)
      A 90-minute invited presentation on applied best practices for external providers of EAP services. Focus on three areas: Classic conceptual model for customer reporting on EAP value; What should be In customer reporting in current business marketplace; and New trends for EAP in behavioral health risk management.
    • Best Practices in Employee and Organizational Risk Management: Opportunities for EAP

      Attridge, Mark (2018-10-10)
      This four hour workshop examines the global research literature to identify the evidence-based best practices that employee assistance providers can use to better manage the behavioral health risks of employees in the organizations they serve. As EAPs try to show higher business value to their purchasers, adopting a risk-management and prevention oriented approach can distinguish it from standard providers. Companies that want to be an "employer of choice" and establish a healthy work culture can re-position the EAP as part of these larger organizational well-being initiatives through the kinds of services profiled in this workshop.
    • Best Practices in Working with Law Enforcement

      Herlihy, Patricia A.; Rascati, James N.; Barber, Brad W. (EAPA, 2021-04)
      Employee Assistance Professionals have an unusual opportunity to provide workplace expertise during these unprecedented and stressful times. Law enforcement in particular is one population that is under unusual pressure these days. Law enforcement has always been a challenging and stressful occupation, but there has been an increase in their need for emotional support within the last year. An officer’s stress level impacts not only themselves and their ability to perform on the job, but also their family members and community. In one state where an EAP agency provides services to approximately 56 of the 102 police departments, a significant increase in the demand for EAP services was noted. A majority of these police departments experienced either double or sometimes even quadruple the number of requests for EAP services within the last two years. With this increase in demand for behavioral health services, opportunities arise for EAPs. However, for opportunities and partnerships to be successful, EA professionals need to better understand the subculture of law enforcement in the United States.
    • Bring it on Home: A Call for a Return to Localized EAP Services

      Bjornson, Tom; Sharar, David A., 1961- (2004)
    • The Business Case Bibliography: 100 Review Papers on the Workplace Value of Mental Health, Addiction and EAP Services

      Attridge, Mark (Employee Assistance Society of North America, 2011-12)
      This Note provides a list of 100 recent review papers on the topic of making the business case for providing mental health and addiction services to employees and their family members. This list has a special emphasis on employee assistance program (EAP) services, which already serve many work organizations and are often an effective source of referrals into mental health and addiction care treatment for more serious cases and for immediate short­‐term counseling for more minor cases. Most of these works examine financial issues of cost­‐benefit, cost­‐effectiveness and return on investment (ROI) as well as other behavior­‐ based outcomes of value to employers such as improvements in employee performance, employee engagement, positive work culture, risk management, work absence, work productivity/presenteeism, health care costs, disability costs, and turnover. The list includes works from the United States, Canada, and other Western countries.
    • The Business Case for Workplace Critical Incident Stress Response: A Brief Review of the Research Literature.

      Attridge, Mark (Crisis Care Network, 2009-07)
      Critical Incident Stress Response (CISR) services are often included as part of employee assistance programs (EAPs) and thus CISR services are available now to millions of workers. Most employers and researchers today recognize the overall business value or return on investment (ROI) for EAP services. Many employers, however, provide access to CISR services just because it is the “right thing to do.” Nonetheless, in the process of personal recovery, there can also be other outcomes that benefit the organization financially. This paper reviews the research literature on the business value that can be achieved when organizations offer CISR services.
    • The Business of Mental Health

      Greer, Kathleen; Quick, John (Arizent, 2021-04-26)
      When the pandemic hit, the need for mental health care increased, just at a time when the system was not functioning well. A shortage of licensed providers along increasing need caused a floundering industry to become vulnerable to disruption. The increase in demand was partly due to the pandemic, but also caused but further acceptance of mental health care, the opioid crisis, and the growing acceptance of tele-health and CBT solutions. As these digital disruptors entered the field, they took aim at EAPs and caused many companies to re-evaluate what they had to offer employees and family members.
    • The Business Value of EAP: A Conceptual Model

      Attridge, Mark; Amaral, Thomas M., 1952-; Bjornson, Tom; Goplerud, Eric N.; Herlihy, Patricia A.; McPherson, Tracy L.; Paul, Rich; Routledge, Sandra; Sharar, David A., 1961-; Stephenson, Diane; et al. (Employee Assistance Society of North America, 2010-05)
      This Research Note describes how to conceptualize the different ways that employee assistance services provide business value to an organization. The model features three major categories or levels of value: Workplace Performance Value – which has cost savings from employee productivity, absence and other human capital areas; Benefit Cost Value – which has cost savings from health care, disability and other employee benefits; and Organizational Value – which has cost savings from risk management and improved organizational development.
    • The Canadian national behavioral consortium industy profile of external EAP vendors.

      Csiernik, Rick; Sharar, David A., 1961-; Granberry, Stanford Wayne, 1953- (Taylor and Francis, 2014-08-06)
      A secondary analysis of data provided the initial examination of comparative metrics pertaining to Canadian employee assistance program (EAP) vendors. Contracts held by the 12 participating organizations ranged from 10 to 6,500 with lives covered ranging from 300,000 to 6.3 million, underscoring not only the diverse nature of EAP vendors in Canada but issues with comparing data among such vastly different providers. The most prominent model of service provision was capped EAP counseling which led to an average of 3.1 counseling sessions per client with only one vendor having a mean of greater than four. The majority of counseling offered through Canadian EAP vendors is provided by fee for service affiliate counselors. All client satisfaction scores were positive; however, the vast majority of clients did not complete any type of evaluation leaving both EAP vendors and client organizations with no substantive knowledge of the impact of the service. In the comparatively small EAP market that Canada represents, it was not surprising to learn that the greatest business concern of the vendors was product pricing, especially as ten percent of EAP services were being provided as part of larger bundled benefits plans and thus there was no actual direct cost for the EAP.
    • The Cannabis Conundrum: Getting Value from your EAP

      Greer, Kathleen (Arizent, 2019-08-16)
      Cannabis has shown to be helpful in well-being and recovery. Millions of people rely on it to help with pain, sleep and other conditions. However, cannabis is an addictive drug, resulting in more than four million diagnoses of cannabis-use disorder. How will workplaces deal with the increase of cannabis use and how can the EAP help?
    • The Cannabis Conundrum: What are Workers' Rights?

      Greer, Kathleen (Arizent, 2019-08-09)
      The legalization of cannabis across the country presents uncharted territory for many companies. HR departments are tasked with meeting the challenges associated with new laws related to random drug and pre-employment testing, as well as a host of cultural issues. Organizations are also collaborating with EAP providers on what seems to be a moving target. Meanwhile, EAPs themselves struggle to balance the healing potential of medicinal cannabis with its addictive properties and unclear side effects. This article tackles challenging issues that arise in the workplace.
    • A Case for EAP in the Indian Workplace

      Henry, Jane, Ph.D. (Employee Assistance Professional Association, 2011-11)
    • The Challenges of EAP and Elder Caregiving

      Herlihy, Patricia A.; Greer, Kathleen; Caffo, Sandra (2015-06-17)