• Benchmarking Summary: COVID-19 Crisis for Working Parents

      Boston College Center for Work & Family (Boston College Center for Work & Family, 2020-11)
      COVID-19 has presented a dramatic challenge for working parents and caregivers. Women’s careers, family stability, the economic recovery, and our efforts to make organizations more equitable and inclusive are all at risk. We wanted to collect information from our members to evaluate how the COVID-19 crisis has impacted working parents, and especially working mothers, and what approaches these organization have taken or plan to take to mitigate these challenges. Boston College's Center for Work & Family has a Workforce Round-table that meets 3x/year to discuss these types of issues and concerns. This brief study was to procure their reactions to the issues of working women and their challenges during this COVID Crisis.
    • The Effect of Resources on Caregiving Experiences in the U.S. Population and among Korean American Caregivers

      Hong, Michin; Harrington, Donna (2011)
      Informal caregivers play a major role in providing long-term care (LTC) for older adults. Given the demands of caregiving, caregivers experience various negative caregiving outcomes and eventually worse health. Despite extensive research, prior research reveals limited knowledge about caregiver health because of a lack of attention toward the role of resources, inconsistent findings, and a dearth of ethnic specific detailed knowledge. Thus, this study aims to examine a health model with two different samples drawn from (1) the 2004 National Long-term Caregiver Survey (NLTCS) and (2) a Korean American (KA) caregiver survey. The health model is built upon the Conservation of Resource (COR) Theory and consists of various sets of variables. Structural equation modeling was used to test the health model in each sample. The measurement models and the initial structural models produced poor model fit; however, after modifications were made the final structural models fit well in each data set. In the NLTCS model, more difficult caregiving condition (i.e., caring for older adults with more health problems and longer caregiving time) was related to having fewer resources (i.e., less feeling of mastery, fewer financial resources, less social support, and less family harmony) and negative primary outcomes (i.e., more stress and burden). Moreover, more resources were related to better primary outcomes and better physical health of caregivers. On the other hand, caregiving condition was not associated with resources in the KA model. However, other paths from caregiving condition to primary outcomes, and from resources (i.e., higher self-efficacy, more financial resources, greater social network, greater family harmony, and higher English proficiency) to primary outcomes and to health were also found in the KA models. The findings indicate that resources are related to primary outcomes as well as the final health outcomes across ethnicities, and the importance of resources may be particularly high among the KA population. This study suggests that caregiver support policies and culturally competent programs be expanded. Further studies using longitudinal data and different indicators of the constructs of interest are needed. Finally, some modifications are suggested for better application of the COR theory to caregiving condition.
    • Invisible Overtime: What Employers Need to Know About Caregivers

      Lerner, Debra J., 1954-  (Rosalynn Carter Institute for Caregivers, 2022-01)
      At some point in our lives, many of us will become family caregivers, assisting a loved one who needs help as a result of illness, disability or aging. While caregiving can be extremely rewarding, it frequently results in high levels of physical, emotional, and financial strain. These stressors threaten the health and well-being of the caregivers and their sustained ability to assist their loved ones. Most family caregivers are also employed, and there is increasing concern about the impact of juggling caregiving and work on the caregivers themselves, their families, and the workplace. These working caregivers, whom we will refer to as Caregiver Employees (CEs) are our coworkers, managers, corporate executives, business owners, clients and customers. They hail from all industries and all geographic areas. When they are not working at a paying job, family caregivers are spending hours providing assistance for their care recipient and, in many cases, they are unable to hire additional help. Employers are in a race to attract and retain the best talent and the growing presence of caregivers in the workplace represents both a threat to their success and an opportunity. This white paper provides an update on the relevant research to help employers and policymakers understand: Why we need to understand more about caregivers and caregiving; How the private and public sectors are responding to caregiving trends; and The costs and benefits associated with different interventions for caregivers. Based on a review of the peer-reviewed and grey (not peer-reviewed) research, this white paper reports on the characteristics of CEs, the impact of caregiving on employment, and the policies, programs and resources for supporting CEs.
    • Multilevel Analysis of the Relationship between Maternal Depression and Medication Adherence in Urban, African-American Children with High-Risk Asthma

      Margolis, Rachel H.F.; Bellin, Melissa; Tsoukleris, Mona; Unick, George Jay; Kub, Joan E.; Butz, Arlene (2019-11)
    • Time-Use and Well-Being in Family and Other Unpaid Caregivers of Older Adults

      Baik, Sol; Lehning, Amanda J.; 0000-0002-5081-4956 (2022)
      Due to the intensive time commitment for caregiving, caregivers report limited freedom to engage with others, participate in physical activities, pursue leisure activities, and have adequate time for sleep. Few studies have focused on caregivers’ time-use across different activities, particularly how different patterns of time-use are associated with well-being. This study aimed to: (1) identify time-use profiles of family caregivers of older adults, (2) examine associations between identified time-use profiles and caregiver well-being, and (3) assess whether the effects of gender and race on caregiver well-being vary by the identified time-use profiles. I analyzed 1,640 family caregivers of community-dwelling older adults by combining secondary data from Round 7 (2017) of the National Study of Caregiving and the National Health and Aging Trends Study. I conducted latent profile analysis to estimate time-use profiles including covariates and outcomes. Three classes of caregivers emerged based on time-use patterns. The High Committed class (20%) spent the longest time in non-eldercare related committed activities, such as household activities and paid work. The High Discretionary class (49%) spent the highest amount of discretionary time, including social activities, physical activities, and other free-time activities. They also spent the least amount of non-eldercare committed time compared to the other two caregiver types. Lastly, the Balanced class (31%) allocated time relatively evenly in all activities. When comparing well-being outcomes between time-use profiles, caregivers in the High Discretionary class had worse self-rated health but lower levels of anxiety than the Balanced class. This study also found significant gender differences in depression, which varied by time-use profiles. Research on time-use and caregiver well-being may help identify at-risk caregiver groups based on lifestyle profiles and develop targeted policies to promote better caregiver well-being.
    • What Could Be: Embracing Family-Friendly Trends in the New Workplace

      Hemm, Amanda (2021-06-04)
      It is possible - perhaps even probable - that we will emerge after COVID with the majority of companies trending in a more parent-friendly and caregiver supportive direction. As we roll into the second summer of COVID, the mood has changed. Shots are in more arms than not, masks are coming off, schools and camps are happening, and workplaces are trying to figure out what comes next. The optimism is real and so is the undercurrent of caution. It’s been 15 months of shifting sands and many of us are not quite ready to believe that we have arrived at the“new normal” yet. While I can’t pretend to know what the post-COVID world will look like, I do know that we have a responsibility to keep pushing for the changes we want to see.