• 20 Years of EAP Cost-Benefit Research - Part 3 of 3: Taking the Productivity Path to ROI

      Attridge, Mark (Employee Assistance Professionals Association (EAPA), 2010-10)
      The final article in a three-part series of outcomes in employee assistance in 20 years since pioneering applied research study by internal EAP program at McDonnell Douglas Corporation in the United States. This article reviews large-size studies (N > 26,000; N >59,000; N > 3,500) that measured improvements in work absenteeism and work productivity by users of EAP counseling. The main idea is that rather than emphasizing the potential for healthcare cost savings derived from small part of EAP cases that are more high risk (for alcohol/drug or psychiatric disorders) - as was examined in the McDonnell Douglas study and called the "pareto path" to value - it makes more sense to focus on the large percentage of EAP cases that have workplace-based cost savings form reduced absenteeism and restored productivity after counseling.
    • Answering 10 Questions: EAP Reports Should Answer 10 Basic Questions that Drive Purchaser Expectations About the Value of Employee Assistance Services.

      Attridge, Mark (Employee Assistance Professionals Association (EAPA), 2007-07)
      Strategic discussion of best practices in collecting data, conducting analyses and presenting results of annual utilization for employer customers of employee assistance program services.
    • The Business Value of EAP: A Conceptual Model

      Attridge, Mark; Amaral, Thomas M., 1952-; Bjornson, Tom; Goplerud, Eric N.; Herlihy, Patricia A.; McPherson, Tracy L.; Paul, Rich; Routledge, Sandra; Sharar, David A., 1961-; Stephenson, Diane; et al. (Employee Assistance Society of North America, 2010-05)
      This Research Note describes how to conceptualize the different ways that employee assistance services provide business value to an organization. The model features three major categories or levels of value: Workplace Performance Value – which has cost savings from employee productivity, absence and other human capital areas; Benefit Cost Value – which has cost savings from health care, disability and other employee benefits; and Organizational Value – which has cost savings from risk management and improved organizational development.
    • The Business Value of Employee Assistance: A Review of the Art and Science of ROI (EAPA 2013 Keynote Address)

      Attridge, Mark (2013-10-19)
      Dr. Attridge reviews the science, strategies and future trends influencing the business value of employee assistance program (EAP) services. The talk opens by examining the empirical evidence relevant to the return on investment (ROI) for workplace behavioral health services. Over 1,000 individual research works now exist globally that support various aspects of the business case, including dozens of studies specifically on the outcomes and cost-offset value of EAP services. Next, the themes from this research are used to formulate different strategies for making the business case for EAP. Four conceptual models – called the Primary, Pareto, Productivity, and Partnership approaches to value – are each described and illustrated with data examples. These approaches work best when combined into a more comprehensive model that reflects the mix of services delivered by the EAP. Finally, several "big-picture" trends are identified in the areas of technology tools, outcome measures, healthy workplace culture and technology. These trends offer important new opportunities for increasing the business value of EAPs. Reference List included.
    • Case study: EAP outcomes and impact 2018

      CuraLinc Healthcare, 2018
      CuraLinc measured the health and productivity of 3,379 benefit-eligible employees who used the EAP between January 1, 2017, and December 31, 2017. CuraLinc's case managers offered the SPS-6 and WOS to all employees; and offered the PHQ-9 and AUDIT to those who presented with depression and alcohol use, respectively. CuraLinc followed up with participants 30 days after the cased was closed to measure changes in their health and productivity, evaluate their satisfaction with the program and profiled for variations in health status or referrals to other resources. In summary, the data collected by CuraLinc suggests that an EAP with the proper construct and focus can facilitate meaningful behavior change that correlates to a decrease in absenteeism, an increase in productivity and a direct impact on a client's bottom line. The data also suggests that an EAP does have the ability to improve the health of employees who present with depression or alcohol use problems.
    • Case study: EAP outcomes and impact 2019

      CuraLinc Healthcare, 2019
      CuraLinc measured the health and productivity of 5,761 benefit-eligible employees who used the EAP between January 1, 2018, and December 31, 2018. CuraLinc's case managers offered the SPS-6 and WOS to all employees; and offered the PHQ-9 and AUDIT to those who presented with depression and alcohol use, respectively. CuraLinc followed up with participants 30 days after the case was closed to measure changes in their health and productivity, evaluate their satisfaction with the program and profile for variations in health status or referrals to other resources. In summary, the data collected by CuraLinc suggests that an EAP with the proper construct and focus can facilitate meaningful behavior change that correlates to a decrease in absenteeism, an increase in productivity and a direct impact on a client's bottom line. The data also suggests that an EAP does have the ability to improve the health of employees who present with depression or alcohol use problems.
    • Case study: EAP outcomes and impact 2020

      CuraLinc Healthcare, 2020
      CuraLinc measured the health and productivity of 7,040 benefit-eligible employees who used the EAP between January 1, 2019, and December 31, 2019. CuraLinc's case managers offered the SPS-6 and WOS to all employees; and offered the PHQ-9 and AUDIT to those who presented with depression and alcohol use, respectively. CuraLinc followed up with participants 30 days after the cased was closed to measure changes in their health and productivity, evaluate their satisfaction with the program and profiled for variations in health status or referrals to other resources. In summary, the data collected by CuraLinc suggests that an EAP with the proper construct and focus can facilitate meaningful behavior change that correlates to a decrease in absenteeism, an increase in productivity and a direct impact on a client's bottom. line. The data also suggests that an EAP does have the ability to improve the health of employees who present with depression or alcohol use problems.
    • Comparing Improvement After EAP Counseling for Different Outcomes and Clinical Context Factors in Over 16,000 EAP Cases Worldwide

      Attridge, Mark; DeLapp, Gregory P.; Herlihy, Patricia A.; Ihnes, Pamela; Jacquart, Mike; Lennox, Richard; London, Marina; Servizio, Lou; Sharar, David A., 1961- (2017-09-15)
      The Workplace Outcome Suite (WOS) is an easy-to-administer tool developed by Chestnut Global Partners (CGP) Division of Commercial Science. It uses a short, precise, and easy-to-administer survey that collects EAP specific outcome data both before (pre – at start of the counseling) and after (post – usually after 3 months) EAP services. Thus, the WOS is a measure of change that examines five key aspects of workplace functioning: absenteeism, presenteeism, work engagement, workplace distress, and life satisfaction. The WOS is currently the only publicly available, free instrument that has been psychometrically validated and tested for use in EAP settings. See the 2016 WOS Report for a discussion of how it is administered, basic calculation methods for change over time, and the history of the development of the full 25-item, 9-item and brief 5-item versions.
    • Construction industry series: The Human and Financial Costs of Behavioral Health in Construction

      Beyer, Cal; Spoor, Leia (Matrix Group Publishing, 2021)
      Prior articles in this series have explained the construction industry’s challenges with mental health, substance misuse, and suicide risk before and during the pandemic. These factors are an “invisible crisis in construction.” These issues were problematic in construction before COVID- 19 but the pandemic has worsened the mental health stress and financial pressures among workers which, in turn, has increased behavioral health risks among the workforce and their families. Similarly, behavioral health challenges pose risk to all construction stakeholders. There are some telltale warning signs, including the rising risk of near hits and/or serious injuries and fatalities (SIFs) on jobsites. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics in 2019 the construction industry experienced 1,066 workplace fatalities, the highest number since 2007. Moreover, among all industries, unintentional overdoses due to nonmedical use of drugs or alcohol increased for the seventh consecutive year.
    • Do EAPs Work?

      Attridge, Mark (Health Enhancement Research Organization, 2019-02-12)
      General Theme of Conference: Psychological Safety at Work: What Happens When More Voices Are Heard? The presentation reviews empirical studies to answer the following six questions of interest to employers: Q1 = How many employers have EAPs? Q2 = Why are EAPs needed? Q3 = Why do employers buy EAP? Q4 = Who buys EAP? Q5 = Where is the evidence on EAP Effectiveness? Q6 = How do companies get their EAP to be more effective?
    • Do You Know What An EAP Is?

      Narine, John (2021-11-08)
      When I was in active addiction, I would be continuously absent from work. And when I finally gathered myself enough to make it in, my work performance and behavior significantly declined. My boss did the best she could to guide me towards getting help for my addiction, while constantly assessing how willing I was to seek out the help myself. However, her main focus was on my work performance and related behavior. And after seeing no true progress being made in that area, she finally asked Human Resources to step in. Through private conversation, HR made the suggestion that I call our assigned EAP (Employee Assistance Program) provider. HR said that the EAP would give me free counseling sessions and assist me with any additional help that I may need. My HR representative would periodically check on whether I’d called and would promote their usefulness; however, never did they specify the confidentiality I would have. I was skeptical to take their suggestion, I told myself: If my employer is suggesting that I call this number, well… what information are they going to relay back to my employer? If I ask my employer about what my confidentiality rights are, are they going to wonder why I am asking about confidentiality? Will that raise more questions and suspicion?
    • EAP Business Case Research: Human Capital Outcome Metrics

      Attridge, Mark (2005-08-10)
      This presentation provides an overview of research that examines the business case and outcomes from employee assistance and work/life services. The presentation has four areas. Part 1. EAP Business Value Model; Part 2. Integration Trends and Models; Part 3.Role of Partners in Driving Value; and Part 4. Measurement Implications
    • EAP Effectiveness and ROI

      Attridge, Mark; Amaral, Thomas M., 1952-; Bjornson, Tom; Goplerud, Eric N.; Herlihy, Patricia A.; McPherson, Tracy L.; Paul, Rich; Routledge, Sandra; Sharar, David A., 1961-; Stephenson, Diane; et al. (Employee Assistance Society of North America, 2009-10)
      This Research Note reviews the results of studies examining the level of user satisfaction, the general effectiveness of EAP core services and the financial return on investment (ROI) for employee assistance programs.
    • EAP Impact on Work, Stress and Health: National Data 1999-2002

      Attridge, Mark (2003-03)
      This project brings together applied naturalistic research data to assess the impact of employee assistance program (EAP) services on employee work, stress, and health. Clinical and follow-up self-report survey data from one EAP company (Optum®) is analyzed representing four large national samples (N > 1000 cases randomly selected each year for 1999, 2000, 2001 and 2002). Results show that the majority of EAP clients report improvements in their work productivity and avoided absenteeism, stress, overall health and well-being and daily functioning after use of the service. The findings are found consistently in each year’s data and thus provide replication of results. Financial estimates of workplace outcomes are provided.
    • EAP Industry Outcomes for Employee Absenteeism and Presenteeism: A Global Research Analysis

      Attridge, Mark (2016-11-02)
      This study standardized the results from a variety of different client- and clinician-rated measures of work absence and work productivity that were collected at pre and post use of the EAP. This super dataset represents the experiences of over 240,000 individual employees users of EAP counseling over 20 years of service delivery from 20 different EAPs in six countries (Australia, Canada, China, Netherlands, South Africa and the United States). The change in absenteeism showed a reduction in work absence from an average of 13.04 hours per case per month before EAP to 6.44 hours during the most recent month at follow-up after use of EAP counseling. For presenteeism, the average employee user of the EAP was functioning at a 64% level of productivity during the month before use of the EAP (on a 0-100% scale; with the typical “healthy” employee at 84%). But this initial rather severe deficit changed to a more normal level of 79% when assessed several months later at follow-up after completing EAP counseling. When using a standard full-time work schedule of 160 hours a month and adjusting the total time at work for absence hours when not at work at Pre and Post periods, this level of unproductivity is equivalent to a total of 52.9 hours of presenteeism before use of the EAP and 32.3 hours after the use of EAP. When absenteeism and presenteeism are combined, the month before use of EAP was 66.0 hours and the month after at follow-up was 39.7. This is a difference in which the typical EAP counseling case experienced 27.25 hours less of lost productive time (i.e., 6.6 fewer hours of missed work (absenteeism) and 20.7 fewer hours of lost productive time while at work (presenteeism) per month after use of the EAP). Note that presenteeism accounts for about 80% of the 27.2 total hours of restored work productivity after EAP counseling. Preventing 3.4 days of lost productivity per month is a substantial outcome considering that the true effect of EAP counseling is several times larger taking into account that the typical course of clinical distress if untreated could extend for a period of several months with varying levels of severity and associated work impairment.
    • EAP Outcomes, Critical Incident Effectiveness Measures and EAP Product Extension

      DeLapp, Gregory P.; Sharar, David A., 1961-; Attridge, Mark; Veder, Barb; Antonissen, Dirk (2018-10-12)
      KEYNOTE ADDRESS. During this moderated panel-session we will examine the value of our industry working towards a set of globally standardized workplace evaluation tools, including the Workplace Outcome Suite (WOS), the recently validated version of the WOS for workplace critical incident response - The Critical Incident Outcome Measure (CIOM), and a new organizational level measure of the effectiveness of EAP supports to workplace - the Short Inventory of Stress and Well-being tool from Europe. Additionally, this session will address the rationales for designing and incorporating these tools into your books of business.
    • EAP ROI Calculator© - Conceptual Approach and Default Data Inputs: Research Review Appendix

      Attridge, Mark; Servizio, Lou; Sharar, David A., 1961- (Chestnut Global Partners & Disease Management Strategy Group, 2015)
    • EAP Works: Global Results from 24,363 Counseling Cases with Pre-Post Data on the Workplace Outcome Suite (WOS)

      Attridge, Mark; Sharar, David A., 1961-; DeLapp, Gregory P.; Veder, Barb (Institute for Health and Productivity Management, 2018-12)
      The Workplace Outcome Suite© (WOS) is a self-report instrument designed to evaluate the effectiveness of employee assistance program (EAP) counseling services from the perspective of the employee user of the service. More than 30 EAPs collected longitudinal data on all versions of the WOS from 2010 to 2018 and voluntarily submitted their raw data to Chestnut Global Partners for analysis. The 24,363 employees in this aggregated sample represent 26different countries, but most of the cases were from the United States (79%) and China (15%). The typical EAP case in this data set was a female, age 38, and was a self-referral into an external vendor of EAP services seeking help for a mental health concern. Outcomes were collected at the start of counseling and again approximately three months later. Evidence of the psychometric validity and test-retest reliability for all five WOS measures was found in correlational tests. Other tests of the change in outcomes from before to after use of EAP counseling found large effects on work presenteeism and life satisfaction (ηp2= .24 and .19), a medium-size effect on work absenteeism (ηp2= .13), and small effects on both workplace distress and work engagement (ηp2= .05 and .04). Although most EAP cases had no absence from work either before counseling or at follow-up (58% and 78%, respectively), the average amount per case per month of missed work due to the personal concern was reduced from 7.4 hours before to 3.9 hours after use of the EAP. Weak findings on moderator tests determined EAP counseling was effective to a similar degree on WOS outcomes across contextual factors of client age, sex, country, referral type, clinical concerns, industry of the employer, and delivery models for providing employee assistance counseling (i.e., external vendors, internal staff programs and hybrid models). As an alternative to the fill-in-the-blank response format requiring a specific number of hours, a modified version of the work absenteeism single item is offered that has a 5-point scale with normative levels of absence hours obtained from the Pre EAP use global data that define each of the 1-5 rating options. More details and related findings are presented in the Workplace Outcomes Suite 2018 Annual Report from Chestnut Global Partners.
    • EAPA and COVID-19: Absenteeism and Presenteeism – Two Things that Should Matter to Every Organisation

      EAPA - South Africa (2021-01-04)
      It is likely that you have heard the terms ‘absenteeism’ and ‘presenteeism’ spoken of as two of the barometers of employee-wellbeing, but do you understand the serious connotations of high levels of absenteeism or presenteeism and how much of an impact these workplace issues can have on an organisation? They go far beyond employees calling in sick too often or taking chunks of time out, while at work, to deal with personal matters.
    • EAPs correlate to positive workplace outcomes

      Sharar, David A., 1961-; DeLapp, Gregory P. (Employee Assistance Advisor, 2016-12-20)
      Study using EAP benchmarking tool demonstrates efficacy of programs/services in reducing absenteeism, presenteeism, workplace distress, increased engagement and job satisfaction.