Recent Submissions

  • Reasons and Resources: An EAP Research Based Practice Model

    Hughes, Daniel (1995)
    This is a paper that was written for the 1995 International Employee Assistance Annual Conference. The paper presents the model and history that the Mount Sinai Medical Center's EAP developed. It was a practice based research model that complemented its package of core organizational and employee services. The model represented an expanded role for EAP practice within the context of an academic care center. Practice based research integrated the provision of core EAP services with established methods of scientific inquiry. The paper describes the Cyclical Model of Practice Based Research as well as the three practice based research projects that Mt Sinai was involved with at the time: 1) assessment and intervention techniques with Boston University's Center on Work and Family; 2) project to provide long term counseling services to high risk clients and 3) community/workplace alliance for the prevention of drug and alcohol abuse. The paper concludes with suggestions about the direction of EAP services and the need for evidence based practice.
  • The association of emotional intelligence and transformational leadership to job satisfaction of social work leaders

    Bailey, Gary B. (2021-05-01)
    The purpose of this explanatory correlational study was to examine how emotional intelligence (EI) and transformational leadership (TL) were related to social work leaders' job satisfaction in healthcare settings. The independent (predictor) variables are social work leadership characteristics of emotional intelligence measured by the overall scores of the Genos Model of Emotional Intelligence (GMEI) instrument, and transformational leadership, measured by the MLQ-5-x short (Bass & Avolio, 2004; Palmer, Stough, Harmer, & Gignac, 2014). The dependent (outcome) variable is job satisfaction measured by a short form of the Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS) modified to a 16-item questionnaire (Koeske, Kirk, Randi, & Rauktis, 1994; Spector, 1985). Study participants were drawn from social work leaders practicing in healthcare settings who are members of the National Association of Social Workers (NASW) and the Association of Social Work Boards (ASWB). As represented in the literature, there was a significant positive correlation between variables emotional intelligence (EI) and transformational leadership (TL), and job satisfaction (JS). The analysis shows that emotional intelligence level and gender did not significantly predict job satisfaction (β = .033, t (789) = .97, p > .34 and β = .01, t (789) = .28, p > .78 ns respectively). However, transformational leadership, and years of practice did significantly predict job satisfaction (β = .313, t (789) = 9.06, p < .001, and (β = .089, t (789) = 2.62, p < .001 respectively).
  • More Mental Health Advertising, Less Mental Health Stigma?

    Oss, Monica E. (Open Minds, 2021-05-11)
    The beginnings of virtual mental health service delivery can be traced to 1986 and Cornell University’s Dear Uncle Ezra, a question and answer forum on mental health issues. Some credit the origins to David Sommers who, in 1995, started a fee-based service using emails and real-time chats to provide one-on-one therapy (see The History of Online Therapy). In the 2000s, we saw a proliferation of telehealth companies—Teladoc in 2002, Amwell in 2006, and MDLive in 2009. Followed by mental health specialty platforms like Ginger in 2011, Talkspace in 2012, BetterHelp in 2013, Quartet Health in 2014, Lyra Health in 2015 …and now a proliferation of virtual behavioral health companies, including Amazon and UnitedHealth Group’s new OptumCare platform. Worldwide, telehealth companies raised a record $4.2 billion in equity funding in the first quarter of 2021 with more than 130 deals from 32 countries. Six telehealth companies became unicorns with valuations of more than $1 billion. In the same period, funding for mental health increased nearly 54% over the previous quarter with $852 million raised through 64 deals . Read full article for more details.
  • The Business of Mental Health

    Greer, Kathleen; Quick, John (Arizent, 2021-04-26)
    When the pandemic hit, the need for mental health care increased, just at a time when the system was not functioning well. A shortage of licensed providers along increasing need caused a floundering industry to become vulnerable to disruption. The increase in demand was partly due to the pandemic, but also caused but further acceptance of mental health care, the opioid crisis, and the growing acceptance of tele-health and CBT solutions. As these digital disruptors entered the field, they took aim at EAPs and caused many companies to re-evaluate what they had to offer employees and family members.
  • Digital is hot and mental health is hotter

    Oss, Monica E. (Open Minds, 2021-04-13)
    “In a few years, we won’t really be talking about digital health as its own thing. I think digital will become part of the fabric of health care and a key part of the way we think about models of health care delivery.” This prognostication from Lisa Marsch, Ph.D., Director of the Center for Technology and Behavioral Health at Dartmouth College and keynote speaker (see Digital Therapeutics For Behavioral Health: Anytime/Anywhere Health Care) at our recent OPEN MINDS Technology & Analytics Institute, may come to pass sooner than any of us think. Recent market developments certainly point in that direction. Read full article for more details.
  • Messaging about Suicide Prevention in Law Enforcement

    National Officer Safety Initiatives; National Consortium on Preventing Law Enforcement Suicide (2020)
    This was developed through the National Consortium on Preventing Law Enforcement Suicide (the Consortium) and focuses on the importance of safe messaging. Through the Consortium, five task force groups were formed to identify recommendations and considerations for the policing profession as it relates to suicide prevention efforts in an agency or department: messaging, data and research, organization and system change, peer support, and family support. This resource provides information for leadership to use to help promote and support suicide prevention efforts. WHY DOES MESSAGING ABOUT SUICIDE MATTER? Research has shown that messaging about suicide can either increase the risk of suicide and undermine prevention efforts or promote positive behaviors and support prevention goals.. There are many complexities to what contributes to suicidal thoughts or behavior in an individual police officer. Words matter, and the way a police agency talks about suicide has a significant impact in preventing suicide and encouraging help-seeking behavior for those who may be in crisis. Contrary to best practice recommendations, many messages focus on the specific type, location, or graphic descriptions surrounding suicide loss, providing detailed information that is inappropriate for the people hearing the messages. In order to help promote and support prevention efforts, agencies should consider the evidence-based recommendations provided in this toolkit.
  • Covariates Associated with Completing Short-Term Residential Treatment for a Substance Use Disorder Among Adults in the U.S.

    Ware, Orrin; Sacco, Paul; 0000-0002-3269-5324 (2021)
    Substance use disorders (SUDs) are associated with harmful outcomes across the biopsychosocial spectrum. Although completion of treatment for SUDs is associated with beneficial outcomes such as improved well-being and reduced mortality, premature treatment termination remains high in the United States. Short-term residential treatment is brief and for more severe SUD. This 3-paper dissertation focuses on exploring covariates of treatment completion in a short-term residential setting for adults with an SUD. Secondary data include the Treatment Episode Data Set Discharges 2017 and the Short-Term Residential Treatment Dataset, which contains data gathered from a Mid-Atlantic treatment facility’s electronic medical records. Paper 1 examines the associations of sociodemographic and substance use characteristics with completion of short-term residential treatment. This paper also has a primary focus on observing sex differences in treatment completion. Results from logistic regression models indicated that men were more likely to complete treatment than were women, nonpolysubstance users were more likely to complete treatment than were polysubstance users, and individuals with alcohol identified as their primary substance were more likely to complete treatment than were individuals with other primary substances. Paper 2 examines the associations between perceived stress, distress tolerance, and treatment completion in the short-term residential SUD treatment setting. Perceived stress and distress tolerance were negatively associated. Men had lower perceived stress and higher distress tolerance than did women. Those who completed treatment had lower perceived stress and higher distress tolerance than did those who were discharged from treatment prematurely. Lower perceived stress was found to predict treatment completion conditional to including a Perceived Stress × Distress Tolerance interaction variable. Distress tolerance did not moderate the relationship between perceived stress and treatment completion. Paper 3 examines a scale based on the theory of planned behavior to predict treatment completion in the short-term residential SUD treatment setting. In a path model, the theory of planned behavior’s constructs attitude and perceived behavioral control positively predicted greater intention to complete treatment. Intention to complete treatment and perceived behavioral control did not have a direct effect on treatment completion.
  • The Case for a Trade Association for Employee Assistance

    Evans, Phil (2010)
    With the support of our volunteer Board of Directors and dozens of Committee members, and the guidance of our professional management company, EASNA has made great strides in its ability to deliver on its mission. While the hopeful signs of an economic recovery may be a part of the explanation for this year’s 75% increase in attendance at our Annual Institute in May in Montreal, it is certainly also the result of consistently reaching out to our constituents with meaningful and valuable content and services. One of the essential characteristics of a strong and resilient industry is a well structured and active trade association. An effective trade association can create greater product awareness, adoption of standardized and ethical processes and best practices, and dissemination of a unified message to help the industry communicate with its stakeholders and customers. However, many people inside the Employee Assistance profession will describe our industry as fragmented and suffering from the unsustainable margins that result from commoditization, rapid consolidation and channel confusion among related industries. Perhaps most threatening to the industry is the current lack of a strong strategic plan at the industry level to deal with the threats and opportunities created by the rapidly changing landscape of healthcare and employer sponsored benefit plans. The terms “trade association” and “professional association” are often thought of synonymously; however, the term “trade association” is used to more deliberately reflect an emphasis on organizational/business representation rather than individual practitioner membership. We further assert that the functions of a trade association are not currently being addressed in a cohesive and unified manner.
  • Parents’ Experiences and Perspectives of Early Childhood Mental Health Services and Child Welfare

    Keyser, Daniel; Ahn, Haksoon; 0000-0002-7812-7496 (2021)
    Children birth to five in the child welfare system often experience trauma and are at risk for mental health problems and developmental delays (Barth, Scarborough et al., 2007; Cooper, Banghart & Aratani, 2010; Painter & Scannapieco, 2013; Whitaker, 2015). However, despite the high need for services, few children in child welfare receive them (Horwitz et al., 2012; Stahmer et al., 2005). Qualitative studies have used interviews with service providers to identify themes related to mental health service barriers (Hoffman, 2016). However, a gap remains in understanding birth parents’ experience accessing mental health services for children birth to five involved in child welfare. The purpose of this dissertation is to understand the experiences and perspectives of parents of toddlers and preschoolers in child welfare accessing mental health services. A mixed-methods study using qualitative methods as the primary method was conducted. Ten African American birth parents participated. Participants had children 1.5 to 5 years old and involved in child welfare when accessing mental health services. The qualitative data explored parents’ experiences and perspectives of mental health and child welfare services. The quantitative data provided descriptive statistics to assess child behavior, parent stress, parent psychological distress, and mental health service satisfaction compared to national norms. The qualitative data and the quantitative data were integrated to understand parents’ experience with early childhood mental health and child welfare services. The qualitative results of this study showed three major qualitative themes; complex mental health needs, navigating systems: child welfare and mental health, and equity and understanding. Quantitative results suggested most participants had their children placed in foster care, a high level of mental health need for participants’ children, participants had lower psychological distress, but had elevated levels of parenting stress. The integrated data showed participants referred to early childhood mental health services did not immediately seek services, but when they did, they often navigated through several barriers before receiving services. Some participants did not seek services until a major traumatic incident. A conceptual model was developed for early childhood mental health service utilization. Implications for practice, policy, and future research are discussed.
  • Orientation to Employee Assistance Programs: For Mental Health Professionals in the U.S.A.

    Jones, Ed, LMFT, CEAP; Landsman, Andrea; Marshall, Brenda, LCSW, LMFT; Maschhoff, Tom; McCann, Bernard A.; Price, Jan; Ruster, Pam; Sumiec, Tim; Williams, Patrick, LMFT, CEAP (2016)
    This set of slides was developed by an EAPA Committee in 2016 to document the fundamentals of employee assistance practice to new professionals to the field. It includes the following learning objectives: 1) Describe Employee Assistance Programs (EAPs), their fundamental services, and service delivery models; 2) Describe the role of EAP network affiliate providers within the EAP service delivery system, and; 3)Identify fundamental requirements of sound ethical practice necessary to competently provide employee assistance services.
  • Comparing the impact of community-based mediation vs. prosecution on assault recidivism among adults

    Harmon-Darrow, Caroline; Bright, Charlotte Lyn; Sharpe, Tanya L.; 0000-0001-5553-1034 (2021)
    Although violence continues to damage community and family life, crime reduction victories over the past 30 years have come with the cost of expanding criminalization of human life, especially in communities of color. Solutions that reduce both violence and over-criminalization are urgently needed. Community-based mediation for diversion of misdemeanor assault cases has been practiced around the country since the 1970s, but little is known about its ability to prevent further violence between participants or reduce assault recidivism. Secondary analysis was conducted with assault cases (n = 162) within a Maryland Judiciary dataset from a quasi-experimental longitudinal comparison group study of criminal court mediation recidivism. Bivariate analyses and logistic regression with inverse proportion of treatment weighting were conducted. Semi-structured qualitative phone interviews (n = 19) were conducted with mediation participants in three counties of Maryland’s Eastern Shore and Baltimore City. Community-based mediation for misdemeanor assault had a small and statistically non-significant association with return to court at six months, versus usual court processes. Had assaults between couples been excluded, recidivism for mediation cases would have been one third of those treated as usual. For interviewees, the justice system was capable of protection and of worsening the danger and damage, and in mutual cases, respondents wanted to cut ties with it. Mediation could only resolve the conflict if participants were offered: safety; free expression; clarity about the incident; solutions; and active, neutral mediators. Outcomes included no further violence or court charges between participants, little interaction, and for some: loss of housing and livelihood, emotional closure, or endings that needed to happen. Mediators, community mediation centers, and local prosecutors’ offices could improve screening for intimate partner violence and work together to divert more mediatable cases earlier in the process via police officers and court commissioners. Future studies of mediation recidivism should consider comparison groups of people who chose to use the service but their fellow participant declined, and mediation evaluations with a dependent variable of self-reported violence would be best suited to understanding community mediation’s ability to meet its founding mission of community-created peace.
  • EAP impact on work, relationship and health outcomes

    Selvik, Rick; Stephenson, Diane; Plaza, Chris; Sugden, Brian (Employee Assistanace Professional Association, 2004-04)
    The employee assistance program (EAP) at Federal Occupational Health (FOH) gathered outcomes data from almost 60,000 clients during the three-year period 1999-2002. Measurement of outcomes at pre- and post-EAP use was incorporated into the standard clinical process for all clients. Outcomes included (1) work productivity as affected by the clients’ emotional problems, (2) productivity as affected by the client’s physical health, (3) the interference of physical or emotional issues on work and social relationships, (4) perceived health status, (5) job attendance/tardiness, and (6) global assessment of functioning (GAF). Results found statistically significant improvement from pre- to post- EAP intervention for all six measures. Unplanned job absence and tardiness in the previous 30 days decreased by an average of 1.5 days per case, and the average GAF rose by 10 percent. Outcomes improvements were evident to a similar degree across clients with different kinds of assessed problems.
  • EAP and COVID-19 2021: Surviving COVID 19: Presentation to the National Behavioral Consortium

    Gorter, Jeff (2021-05-03)
    This was a presentation to the National Behavioral Consortium to help members understand the various stresses that they had been exposed to over the last year during the Pandemic. Gorter outlined the key types of fatigue that members more than likely had experienced. These slides were used to encourage audience participation about their experiences for the last year.... The list of types of Fatigue included: 1) Decision Fatigue - The rush of a challenge faced, may be followed by dip - Doom Scrolling 2) Zoom Fatigue - takes a different energy & Miss my “work family” 3) Compassion Fatigue - Effective helpers have empathy - Reluctance to acknowledge our own stories 4)Cumulative Fatigue - All of the above
  • Suicide Prevention: Why It Should Matter to All of Us

    Beyer, Cal (2020-09)
    I worked in healthcare through high school and college — yes, even in high school! I was frequently exposed to the challenges of mental health and occasionally to suicide. From those experiences, I became determined to learn how to help people and to make a difference in the lives of others. Before I became a construction specialist, I was dedicated to public entity risk management for 10 years. My first behavioral health project in the workplace dates to a municipality I worked for in the late 1980s when I learned about employee assistance programs for first responders. I grew to understand why first responders were skeptical of this employee benefit program. And, this is one reason I have so much respect for the innovative Responder Health program! My first suicide prevention project was a few years later, when I learned to evaluate strategies to reduce suicides in lockup facilities. Initially, resistance ran high to the concepts. In the end, I helped to increase knowledge of the need for physical and mental health assessments when processing new detainees. When I moved to the construction industry in 1996, I was confronted by the need to expand my learning in critical incident response. This frequently included finding grief counselors following fatality incidents and injuries at the jobsite. Initially, there was resistance that this service was not needed and that “we’re tough” and “we’ve been through this before.” These types of interventions helped companies in the aftermath of the 9-11 terrorist attacks and the destruction of Hurricane Katrina. Over time, the new norm became incorporating psychological first aid after such critical incidents.
  • Leading a company in the aftermath of a suicide loss

    VandePol, Bob; Beyer, Cal (Construction Financial Management Association, 2019-03-11)
    WITH THE HIGHEST SUICIDE RATE AND NUMBER OF DEATHS BY SUICIDE – in fact, more deaths by suicide per year than all of OSHA’s Fatal Four Hazards combined – the construction industry must continue its suicide prevention efforts. Despite a company’s best efforts to address suicide prevention, learning that an employee, family member, subcontractor, supplier, or professional business partner has experienced a death by suicide is devastating. Part of suicide prevention is to address how to handle the aftermath of a suicide loss, which is known as suicide postvention. This article will share perspectives, strategies, resources, and tools to help contractors respond appropriately if the unthinkable should happen. What Is Suicide Postvention? The Suicide Prevention Resource Center defines postvention as the provision of crisis intervention and other support after a suicide has occurred to address and alleviate possible effects of suicide. Effective postvention has been found to stabilize the community and facilitate the return to a new normal.

    Federova, Daria (2020-05-21)
    These are slides that were prepared for a presentation to the EAPA Wednesday COVID calls: PONIMAU is an external vendor who is a leading provider of EAP services in Russia. They have a Corporate Wellbeing Platform that was established in 2016 and currently provide services to over 800,000 clients who are employees of over 1,200 companies in Russia, Kazakhstan, Belarus and Armenia. The Client portfolio includes Sberbank, Raiffeisen bank, PriceWaterhouseCoopers, MARS, Heineken, Deutsche Telekom, Mailru group and others. PONIMAU provides a Top quality own web-based platform and mobile applications which ensure high quality of service provision and high utilization rates. Their teamcomprises over 120 specialists from various fields, including 96 psychotherapists certified by the Psychological Institute of the Russian Academy of Education Member of international professional associations: EAPA and EAEF.
  • Women's Career Advancement Programs: Optimizing Efforts for Better Results

    Viñas, Keila L.; McHugh, Tina Lawler (Boston College Center for Work & Family, 2020-11)
    Long a key component of corporate America's Leadership development and diversity, equity and inclusion efforts, women's career advancement programs have proliferated in various forms over the years. These efforts include, for example, mentoring programs, accelerate leadership development training and a variety of work-life supports. Thee initiatives have been developed to address the existing gender imbalance in the workplace and to cultivate women in leadership roles.
  • Benchmarking Summary: COVID-19 Crisis for Working Parents

    Boston College Center for Work & Family (Boston College Center for Work & Family, 2020-11)
    COVID-19 has presented a dramatic challenge for working parents and caregivers. Women’s careers, family stability, the economic recovery, and our efforts to make organizations more equitable and inclusive are all at risk. We wanted to collect information from our members to evaluate how the COVID-19 crisis has impacted working parents, and especially working mothers, and what approaches these organization have taken or plan to take to mitigate these challenges. Boston College's Center for Work & Family has a Workforce Round-table that meets 3x/year to discuss these types of issues and concerns. This brief study was to procure their reactions to the issues of working women and their challenges during this COVID Crisis.
  • Addressing Race in the Workplace: Advancing Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion

    DiMillo, Victoria; Brown, Alexis; Harrington, Brad (Boston College Center for Work and Family, 2021-05)
    Global companies realize the strength that comes from recruiting and retaining a diverse workforce and creating an inclusive workplace. Diversity encompasses many visible and invisible aspects of identity, but in 2021, it is clear that race continues to be an issue of particular concern. While many White Americans believe the United States to be a post-racial society, citing such events as the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960’s or the election of the first African-American president in 2008, tensions and inequalities persist. The events of 2020 made clear what people of color have always known; society has not come as far as many Americans believe. Recent events have highlighted the ways that centuries of systemic racism continue to shape our society, from our schools to our neighborhoods to our workplaces. At the end of 2018, less than half of the companies in the S&P 500 had a Chief Diversity Officer or similar position, according to a study by Russell Reynolds. With the economy in flux and the future unknown, many companies are struggling to stay afloat and may not have the financial or management resources necessary to dedicate to diversity programs. And yet, most recognize that diversity and inclusion efforts must remain a business imperative. This paper focuses on the state of diversity in the workplace, the organizational impediments to implementing inclusive policies, and suggestions for building and maintaining diverse, equitable, and inclusive workplaces.

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