Recent Submissions

  • Best Practices in Customer Reporting to Demonstrate Value and Impact for EAP Services

    Attridge, Mark (2019-03-07)
    A 90-minute invited presentation on applied best practices for external providers of EAP services. Focus on three areas: Classic conceptual model for customer reporting on EAP value; What should be In customer reporting in current business marketplace; and New trends for EAP in behavioral health risk management.
  • The association between services and recidivism for adjudicated youth with behavioral health problems

    Winters, Andrew Madison; Bright, Charlotte Lyn
    Research consistently shows that a considerable proportion of adjudicated youth have substantial behavioral health problems; however, few studies compare a range of services for adjudicated youth with behavioral health problems and the association with continued offending. Therefore, the purpose of this longitudinal study is to explore the role of services for youth with behavioral health problems, comparing types of services, and the association with continued offending. The sample consisted of adjudicated youth who were placed in an out-of-home setting (N=2277). As such, placement type was used to explore the role of services. Survival analysis was employed to assess the time at risk for recidivism. Multivariate results suggest boys compared with girls, and youth from urban areas are more likely to recidivate, while older youth and youth who were adjudicated for a felony offense were less likely to recidivate. Youth with a high index of mental health problems had a 16% lower hazard of recidivating, and youth with a moderate and high index of aggression had greater than twice the hazard of recidivating. Youth who were placed in community-based residential programs were 24% less likely to recidivate compared with a more secure setting. As the length of placement increased youth were less likely to recidivate, and youth who had multiple placements were more likely to recidivate. This study is among a few studies comparing a range of services for adjudicated youth with behavioral health problems and strengthens the literature on out-of-home placements. Results suggest community-based placements may act as a buffer for continued offending and aggression problems significantly increase the likelihood of further offending. Furthermore, outcomes from this study suggest a tailored service approach for youth with aggression problems prior to justice involvement is needed. This study provides empirical knowledge for practitioners and policy makers by highlighting service pathways for adjudicated youth with behavioral health problems. Further research is needed to explore key decision entry points in the justice system in which services are most effective at reducing ongoing court involvement. Moreover, future research is needed to address how symptoms and services may differ by gender, race and ethnicity, and age.
  • A Global Perspective on Promoting Workplace Mental Health and the Role of Employee Assistance Programs

    Attridge, Mark (2019-04)
    This is a literature review article. It highlights the epidemiological prevalence rate data for mental health and substance disorders from the US, Canada, Australia, Europe and globally. I also describe how the workplace can both hurt and help employees. The growth of employee assistance programs (EAP) globally is noted, including key trends in program use and global evidence documenting the effectiveness of brief counseling on workplace outcomes (particularly for reducing employee presenteeism). Finally, 21 leading organizations are profiled that are active in supporting workplace mental health in different parts of the world and select key resources of interest on their websites.
  • Validation of the 5-item Short Form Version of the Workplace Outcome Suite ©

    Lennox, Richard; Sharar, David A., 1961-; Goehner, David B.; Shmitz, Eileen (Institute for Health and Productivity Management, 2018-12)
    This article reports on the validation of the WOS-5 an abbreviated version of the Workplace Outcome Suite© (WOS). For reasons of efficiency and ease of delivery the field was looking for an abbreviated version of the original WOS tool. In this new abbreviated version four of the 5-items correspond to latent variable measures of presenteeism, work engagement, life-satisfaction and workplace distress. These items were selected based on highest factor loading from the original confirmatory factor analysis in the 25-item WOS development study. The fifth item is the single measure of absenteeism created using a formative measures model to count total hours missed by collapsing the total and partial days absent from work. Correlation evidence indicates the 5-item WOS to be a good measurement representation of the 25-item version. Test of sensitivity for three versions of the WOS (WOS-5, WOS-9, and WOS-25) showed the 5-item version to provide comparable sensitivity to change from various EAP service interventions from our pooled dataset. The newly constructed single absenteeism measure for the 5-item scale was shown to be the most sensitive of the various measures, even outperforming the 25-item version. The advantage, while small, was statistically reliable. Together, these results suggest that the 5-item WOS can be used to approximate the 25-item version without excessive loss of reliability, validity or sensitivity.
  • Measuring Coaching Effectiveness: Validation of the Workplace Outcome Suite for Coaching

    Lennox, Richard; Sharar, David A., 1961-; Miller, Francine J. (Institute for Health and Productivity Management, 2018-12)
    Chestnut Global Partners developed the coaching version of the Workplace Outcome Suite (WOS) to measure the effectiveness of coaching interventions in helping to address a range of workplace issues. For this purpose the original 25-item version of the WOS, developed in 2009, was slightly modified to provide outcome information on the coaching process. While the changes were modest, there was some concern that they might adversely affect the psychometric characteristics of the 25-item tool compromising its validity and reliability. Prudence requires the coaching version of the WOS be evaluated to assure results are equivalent with those of the original WOS. Data from 309 clients, provided with disease management coaching services for depression and diabetes, were analyzed. Various methods, including reliability analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and correlational studies, were included in the study. The results of these analyses showed that the coaching tool performed slightly better than the original WOS. The instrument was shown to be extremely reliable, particularly for a short scale. The analysis revealed that the 25-item coaching version of the WOS can be used to test the efficacy and effectiveness of a coaching program without concern for significant measurement error. Results suggest that psychometric studies of the original 25-item WOS can also reflect clinical change from the workplace health programs coaching version even with samples as small as 50 clients.
  • Development and Validation of a Critical Incident Outcome Measure

    Lennox, Richard; Sharar, David A., 1961-; Herlihy, Patricia A.; Mollenhauer, Matthew (Institute for Health and Productivity Management, 2018-12)
    This paper briefly reviews the current literature in the critical incident response field (CIR) as it intersects with the employee assistance field (EAP). A specific study is presented which illuminates the lack of evidence-based research on the organizational effects arising from traumatic incidents in the workplace. This makes the case for further professional collaboration to seek consensus on uniformity of definitions, intervention and more rigorous measures to establish the degree of effectiveness and efficiency of these interventions. The goal of this paper is to present the initial theoretical construction and statistical validity of the Critical Incident Outcome Measurement Scale (CIOM). The tool was beta tested with a pilot sample of two-hundred and fifty responses. The psychometric approach utilized a latent variable approach to first define the critical incident outcome space with multiple indicators. Next the model capacity was tested to recover most of reliable variance in the item set. Finally, confirmatory factor analysis was used to select the best single indicator for an abbreviated version of this measurement tool to enhance its suitability for applied applications. The specific psychometric results are provided in the conclusion. As important as the authors believe it is to collect this data, it is not nearly as important as tending to the needs of the affected employees and employers of any traumatic event.
  • Demonstrating Value: Measuring Outcome & Mitigating Risk: FOH EAP Study Utilizing the Workplace Outcome Suite

    Mintzer, Jeffrey; Morrow, Veronica Y.; Back-Tamburo, Melissa; Sharar, David A., 1961-; Herlihy, Patricia A. (Institute for Health and Productivity Management, 2018-12)
    Despite the popularity and prevalence of Employee Assistance Programs (EAPs), and the historical emphasis on how EAP can improve work performance, there has been very little rigorous evaluation of the workplace effects of EAP counseling. The aim of this Federal Occupational Health (FOH) outcome study was to examine if and to what degree EAP counseling is associated with improved workplace effectiveness with this particular population. Federal Occupational Health (FOH) is the largest provider of occupational health services in the Federal Government, serving more than 360 federal agencies and reaching 1.8 million federal employees. FOH began providing Employee Assistance Program (EAP) services in 1980 and is Health and Human Services’ recognized expert in this key area of employee health programs, delivering specialized EAP services exclusively to over 905,624 federal employees. In 2004 Selvick, Stephenson, Plaza and Sugden published one of the few studies that demonstrated statistically and practically significant outcomes from the FOH’s EAP. Their work showed significant improvement from pre- to post-EAP intervention on measures of productivity; work and social relationships; perceived health status; attendance and tardiness; and global assessment of functioning. In an effort to revitalize the findings with more current outcomes, FOH engaged an industry gold standard tool, the Workplace Outcome Suite (WOS). This measurement tool consists of a 5-item measure, that has been psychometrically tested and is also easy to administer telephonically. It consists of five scales that measures absenteeism, presenteeism, work engagement, life satisfaction, and workplace distress. In October of 2015 FOH began to collect data on specific outcomes for clients who accessed the EAP. This study reports findings from 2016 and 2017 data that indicates a significant decrease in absenteeism and workplace distress as well as increases in life satisfaction and workplace presenteeism.
  • EAP Works: Global Results from 24,363 Counseling Cases with Pre-Post Data on the Workplace Outcome Suite (WOS)

    Attridge, Mark; Sharar, David A., 1961-; DeLapp, Gregory P.; Veder, Barbara (Institute for Health and Productivity Management, 2018-12)
    The Workplace Outcome Suite© (WOS) is a self-report instrument designed to evaluate the effectiveness of employee assistance program (EAP) counseling services from the perspective of the employee user of the service. More than 30 EAPs collected longitudinal data on all versions of the WOS from 2010 to 2018 and voluntarily submitted their raw data to Chestnut Global Partners for analysis. The 24,363 employees in this aggregated sample represent 26different countries, but most of the cases were from the United States (79%) and China (15%). The typical EAP case in this data set was a female, age 38, and was a self-referral into an external vendor of EAP services seeking help for a mental health concern. Outcomes were collected at the start of counseling and again approximately three months later. Evidence of the psychometric validity and test-retest reliability for all five WOS measures was found in correlational tests. Other tests of the change in outcomes from before to after use of EAP counseling found large effects on work presenteeism and life satisfaction (ηp2= .24 and .19), a medium-size effect on work absenteeism (ηp2= .13), and small effects on both workplace distress and work engagement (ηp2= .05 and .04). Although most EAP cases had no absence from work either before counseling or at follow-up (58% and 78%, respectively), the average amount per case per month of missed work due to the personal concern was reduced from 7.4 hours before to 3.9 hours after use of the EAP. Weak findings on moderator tests determined EAP counseling was effective to a similar degree on WOS outcomes across contextual factors of client age, sex, country, referral type, clinical concerns, industry of the employer, and delivery models for providing employee assistance counseling (i.e., external vendors, internal staff programs and hybrid models). As an alternative to the fill-in-the-blank response format requiring a specific number of hours, a modified version of the work absenteeism single item is offered that has a 5-point scale with normative levels of absence hours obtained from the Pre EAP use global data that define each of the 1-5 rating options. More details and related findings are presented in the Workplace Outcomes Suite 2018 Annual Report from Chestnut Global Partners.
  • Do EAPs Work?

    Attridge, Mark (Health Enhancement Research Organization, 2019-02-12)
    General Theme of Conference: Psychological Safety at Work: What Happens When More Voices Are Heard? The presentation reviews empirical studies to answer the following six questions of interest to employers: Q1 = How many employers have EAPs? Q2 = Why are EAPs needed? Q3 = Why do employers buy EAP? Q4 = Who buys EAP? Q5 = Where is the evidence on EAP Effectiveness? Q6 = How do companies get their EAP to be more effective?
  • Connections 2019

    Unknown author (University of Maryland, Baltimore. School of Social Work, 2019)
  • EAPA CT Chapter President’s Message

    Boissonneault, Daniel (2018-05)
  • Designing an Organizational Profile to Inform Leadership of Employee Well-being

    Williams, Donjanea Fletcher; Chen-Bowers, Naomi; Lankford, Tina; Wolff, Marilyn Batan (Employee Assistance Society of North America, 2019-04)
    A vast amount of research indicates workplace wellness programs value monetized business outcomes such as costs related to healthcare and productivity. However, some scientists now recommend that employers measure outcomes that are indirectly related to monetary value, including the culture of workplace well-being. These outcomes include measurements of general employee health, health-friendly work environments and employee engagement. This paper discusses how to effectively develop a wellness profile that highlights key health and well-being metrics that are indirectly and directly related to business outcomes. This tool, the Organizational Well-being Profile, can be utilized to communicate important health outcomes around workplace culture to organizational leaders. Please note the findings and conclusions in this report are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily represent the views of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
  • Voices of child care providers: an exploratory study on the impact of policy changes

    Shdaimah, C.; Palley, E.; Miller, A. (Springer, 2018)
    In debates about child care and early education, the voices of providers are often missing. In this article, we report findings from a study exploring child care provider perspectives on how regulation and policy changes impact their ability to provide care. Data were collected from interviews and focus groups with home-based providers and center-based administrators (N = 55) in rural, urban and suburban New York counties. Four overarching themes emerged: undervaluation of child care providers, challenges faced by providers and the parents of the children they serve, regulatory disconnect, and discretionary implementation of laws and regulations. These findings suggest that without input from providers in the creation of legislation and regulations, policies may have unforeseen, inefficient, or even harmful results, such as an inability to match providers with open slots to families whose children are eligible for and in need of care. Based on these findings, we recommend developing mechanisms to enable and encourage participation of providers in the policymaking process, assisting providers in complying with regulations and providing quality care, and standardizing regulation enforcement and oversight to better align with the needs of families and the day-to-day realities of providing quality care. © 2018, The Author(s).
  • Where Do We Go From Here? Improving Value and Pricing in EAP

    Sharar, David A., 1961- (International Employee Assistance Professionals Association, 2019)
  • Data Collection and Research Maintenance Within the Organization

    Morrison, H. Dean; Beidel, Bernard E. (1984-09-20)
  • Employee Assistance Report 2019

    Unknown author (Iola, WI : Write it Right LLC, 2019)
  • 15 Keys to Mental Health Safety Net

    Spencer-Thomas, Sally (Insurance Thought Leadership, 2019-03-20)
  • Mental Health: A Workforce Crisis

    American Heart Association. Center for Workplace Health (2019-03-05)
  • Stigma as a barrier to the use of Employee Assistance Programs

    Milot, Marc (Workreach Solutions, APAS Laboratory Inc., 2019-02)
    An Employee Assistance Program (EAP) can be an impactful workplace benefit, but not all employees will access one in a time of need. One potential but rarely studied barrier to the use of EAPs is perceived stigma. This study by Workreach Solutions investigated the association between worker perceptions of stigma and the likelihood of accessing an EAP for distressing personal problems in a representative sample of employed Canadians (N=1001). A number of insights emerged from the study, one being that an important proportion of workers reported perceptions of stigma in relation to receiving help from EAP counselling services (EAP treatment stigma). Further, workers with greater perceptions of mental health stigma reported greater EAP treatment stigma, and perceptions of stigma in relation to EAPs reduced the self-reported likelihood of their use. The study concluded that worker perceptions of stigma can be considered a barrier to the use of EAPs, a phenomenon similar to that observed with other psychological or mental health services. Some workers who could benefit from an EAP might choose not to use one due to perceived stigma in relation to receiving help. The findings also suggested that stigma may help explain gender-based patterns of EAP utilization, generally involving lower use by men workers. Workplace interventions aimed at reducing employee perceptions of stigma could increase use of EAPs and by proxy help to improve organizational health.

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