• Comparing Hospital-Onset Bacteremia to Central Line Associated Bloodstream Infection as a Hospital Quality Measure

      Rock, Clare; Thom, Kerri A. (2014)
      Background Central Line Associated Bloodstream Infections (CLABSI) rates are a benchmark for hospital quality despite problems with surveillance bias and inter-observer variability and subjectivity. The rate of Hospital-onset bacteremia (HOB) may offer significant advantages over CLABSI; including being more objective and un-biased. Methods We conducted a multisite cohort study via the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA) research network to examine the relationship between HOB and CLABSI rates and compare ability of each to distinguish between hospitals. Hospitals reported total CLABSIs, central line days, HOBs, patient days, and total blood cultures performed for each ICU and completed a survey relating to CLABSI reporting. Mixed-effect Poisson regression was used to evaluate HOB as a predictor for CLABSI. Standardized infection ratios (SIR) for HOB and CLABSI for medical and neonatal ICUs were calculated using the pooled mean rates of the study sample as the benchmark. Results We obtained data for 79 ICUs from 15 hospitals within the US and Canada. From January 2012 to December 2013, 627 CLABSIs, 11 024 HOB, 464 224 central line days and 959 647 ICU patient days were reported. HOB was a strong predictor of CLABSI; a change in the rate of HOB of 1 predicted a relative change of 2.2% in CLABSI rate. Standardized infection ratios for HOB and CLABSI for medical and neonatal ICUs showed large confidence intervals that overlapped with each other for the CLABSI measure with 14 of 18 (77.7%) CLABSI 95% confidence intervals containing the null value of 1, compared to only 6 of 18 (33.3%) HOB 95% confidence intervals (p-value 0.02, fisher's exact test). CLABSI reporting requires 15.8 hours of nurse time per month. Conclusions In this multicenter study, HOB rates were strongly predictive of CLABSI rates. HOB can be collected automatically saving nurse time and provide better discrimination hospital quality than CLABSI.