• Smoking Cessation Among People With Severe Mental Illness

      Alghzawi, Hamzah Mohammad; Storr, Carla L. (2019)
      Introduction: People living with mental illnesses have a high rate of smoking and make up over half of those dependent on nicotine. A considerable body of research has shown that social support, stressful life events (SLE), receiving help for tobacco/nicotine use, intention to quit, and smoking use-related factors are associated with smoking cessation in the general population. Yet, little is known about these factors among people with severe mental illness (SMI). Purpose: This study aims to: 1) examine gender differences in the interrelations among social support, SLEs, and smoking cessation, 2) estimate the probability of remission from NUD by type of help/services received for tobacco/nicotine use (pharmacological, non-pharmacological, and both), and 3) estimate gender and racial/ethnic differences in the probability of smoking cessation among those with a history of intention to quit. Methods: A sample of 4610 people with SMI and a history of tobacco/nicotine use were identified in a public limited dataset of the 2012-2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC-III). Four mediation and moderated mediation models were used in the first manuscript, whereas survival analyses were used in the second and third manuscripts. All analyses took into account the complex sampling design and controlled for possible confounders (i.e. sociodemographic characteristics) and covariates (i.e. comorbidity with another mental illness). Results: Total, appraisal, and tangible support in females exerted indirect effects on improving smoking cessation via decreased SLEs (total=.0094, appraisal=.0229, tangible=.0298; p<.05). The probability of remission from NUD was higher among those who received non-pharmacological services (28.5%, HR=1.95, p<.05) or those who received both services (19.6%, HR=1.52, p<.05) compared to those who only had pharmacological services (17.6%). Among those with a history of intention to quit, 31.7% had stopped. The probability of smoking cessation was highest for Hispanic females (HR=2.07, p<.05), non-Hispanic other females (HR=1.59, p<.05), non-Hispanic other males (HR=1.45, p<.05), Hispanic males (HR=1.40, p<.05), and non-Hispanic Black females (HR=1.35, p<.05) compared to non-Hispanic Black males. Conclusion: A greater understanding of subgroup differences and the correlates of smoking cessation among tobacco/nicotine users with SMI can enhance efforts to design and implement smoking cessation programs for people with SMI.