• The Relationship Between Alcohol Use and Gambling in Emerging Adulthood

      Jun, Hyun-Jin; Harrington, Donna; Sacco, Paul (2017)
      Emerging adults (ages 18-29 years) display higher prevalence and co-occurrence of alcohol use and gambling than do adults over age 29, which may lead to negative psychological symptoms, behavioral problems, and socioeconomic and medical costs. However, nationally representative research focused on the developmental relationships across these behaviors is limited. This study used multiple waves of National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) data to examine the relationships between earlier depressive symptoms (Wave III), antisocial behaviors (Wave III), alcohol use (Wave III), and gambling behaviors (Wave III) as predictors of later gambling behaviors (Wave IV) in emerging adults ages 18-29 while adjusting for relevant sociodemographic characteristics ((Waves I, II, and IV). It also examined gender differences in those prospective links. Findings from the path analysis suggested that alcohol-use behaviors were associated with antisocial behaviors but not with depressive symptoms, and earlier gambling behaviors were the best predictors of later gambling behaviors. Earlier depressive symptoms and binge drinking were associated with decreased risk of later gambling participation. Interestingly, endorsement of earlier antisocial behaviors was indirectly associated with a decreased risk of later gambling participation through its effect on binge drinking. The findings from multigroup analyses identified significant gender differences in the relationships between past-year alcohol use and heavy drinking (Wave III), binge drinking (Wave III) and gambling problems (Wave IV), and alcohol-related problems and gambling participation (Wave III). However, the only parameter statistically significant in models for both gender groups was past-year alcohol use and heavy drinking, indicating that a stronger association for men than women. The results suggest the need to focus on multiple risk behaviors and support for screening and early intervention for these risk behaviors (i.e., alcohol use and gambling) as a means of secondary prevention in emerging adults. Future research should further investigate the roles of antisocial behaviors, binge drinking, and gambling during emerging adulthood in vulnerability for future alcohol and gambling problems and consider other confounding factors and gender-specific risk factors.
    • Resilience in young adults: An assessment of individual, family and community level protective factors

      Hisle-Gorman, Elizabeth; Harrington, Donna (2008)
      Problem statement. Childhood poverty and child maltreatment are problems that affect millions of children, and often result in a range of negative sequelae. Yet, some individuals do well despite hardship. Understanding resilient survivors of child maltreatment and factors that contribute to their resilience is needed to best serve others who have been abused and neglected. Methods. Young adults (age 18-35) enrolled in college and in a Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) welfare to work job training program were surveyed on demographic, risk and protective factors, and indicators of resilience. Resilience was measured using a composite score composed of seven indicators of resilience (college and employment participation, scholastic achievement, self esteem, postponing childbearing, avoiding early drug and alcohol use, avoiding post traumatic stress disorder, and avoiding depression). Results. An internal locus of control, the presence of a familial mentor, religious involvement and a positive high school experience were all significant protective factors that contributed to resilience against child maltreatment and childhood poverty. As expected, recruitment site also significantly predicted resilience. Conclusion. An internal locus of control, the presence of a familial mentor, religious involvement and a positive high school experience are all associated with global resilience in young adults.
    • The Use of Naltrexone Among Young Adults with Opioid Use Disorder

      Rozenberg, Ilya; Storr, Carla L. (2020)
      Background: The rapid growth of opioid addiction carries catastrophic consequences for the young generation affecting families and society at large. To address problems of compliance and retention in treatment, new, innovative approaches synthesizing available interdisciplinary models with both medical and psychosocial approaches adapted to the user’s environment are necessary. Purpose: This dissertation explored the evidence in literature on the use of naltrexone (XR-NTX) in adolescents and young adults. It also examined relationships between retention in treatment and 1) family engagement, 2) assertive community outreach and 3) use of other substances in a sample of youth being treated for opioid use disorders (OUD). Methods: A scoping literature review provided a synthesis of the current state of evidence on safety and efficacy of XR-NTX use in treating youth with OUD and alcohol use disorders. Relationships between retention in treatment and family engagement, assertive outreach, and comorbid substance use were explored using data from a retrospective chart review of 41 young adults (16-26 years of age) who participated in a randomized open-label pilot study of OUD treatment at a community-based substance use disorder treatment program. Results: Family sessions contributed to increased retention in treatment, evidenced by the increase in number of injections. More frequent communication resulted in a higher number of received injections. There is a positive correlation between number of family sessions and number of doses. The total number of significant other contacts does not have a significant effect on the number of injections while the total number of patient contacts was significant. The study showed that most young adults seeking treatment for opioid use disorder are also using other substances and that the longer they stay in treatment, the greater the chance of decreasing use of other drugs. The review of 13 studies with 462 young adults found that Naltrexone is effective in improving treatment retention, extending abstinence, and preventing relapses in adolescents and young adults with OUD. Conclusion: Family support and ongoing communications could result in increasing retention in treatment. The study allowed for a better understanding of the relationship between treatment of opioid use and use of other substances.