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The Accuracy and Efficiency of a Dynamic 3D Navigation System for Negotiating Calcified CanalsThe purpose of this study is to compare the use of a dynamic navigation system (DNS) to a freehand (FH) method for locating calcified canals. Sixty single-rooted teeth with obliterations were selected. In the DNS group, access preparation was made under navigation and in the FH group without any guidance. Linear and angular deviations and reduced dentin thickness were measured. Furthermore, efficiency was evaluated. The mean linear and angular measurements showed significantly less deviations in the DNS group compared to the FH group. Reduced dentin thickness, at both levels, was significantly less in the DNS group. Furthermore, DNS was faster and more successful than FH method. The DNS group showed only one unsuccessful attempt, compared to five perforations and three large transportations in the FH group. Within the limitation of this study, the dynamic navigation system allowed for more accurate and efficient negotiation of the calcified root canal system.