• Association Between Maternal Experience of Intimate Partner Violence and Under-5 Child Health in Egypt, Jordan, Pakistan, and Afghanistan

      Motawi, Basant; Hirshon, Jon Mark (2022)
      Background : Intimate partner violence (IPV) is the most common type of violence experienced by women globally. The Middle East has some of the highest IPV prevalence worldwide, in particular, Afghanistan, Egypt, Jordan and Pakistan with prevalence ranging from 39% to 87%. The relationship between IPV and childhood morbidity is not well understood. Nonetheless, poor child health outcomes have been linked to homes with IPV. There also is a general lack of research that considers childcare practices when examining the relationship between IPV and child health. The study aims to investigate the association between maternal exposure to IPV and under-5 childhood morbidity taking into account childcare practices. Study Design: Secondary data analysis utilizing data from Demographic and Health Surveys collected in the 2015, 2014, 2017-2018 and 2017-2018 for Afghanistan, Egypt, Jordan, and Pakistan respectively. The study examined the association between IPV and under-5 years childhood morbidity in Afghanistan, Egypt, Jordan, and Pakistan, taking into account the mediating effect of childcare practices. The IPV exposure was assessed through the DHS domestic violence module while the outcome was defined as diarrhea, fever, or ARI experience by the child in the two weeks preceding the survey. Results: The study identified several contextual and individual level factors associated with IPV. Younger, less educated women, with less educated husbands, who are less wealthy and have more children were more likely to experience IPV. The study identified a strong association between IPV and under-5 child illness signs in Afghanistan (OR 2.32, 95 % CI 2.05-2.63) , Egypt (OR 2.02, 95 % CI 1.65-2.48) and Jordan (OR 2.08, 95 % CI 1.54- 2.83).This relationship was not observed in Pakistan (OR 1.17, 95 % CI 0.93-1.47).Childcare practices were found to have no mediation effect on the association between IPV and child illness. Conclusion: The study provides evidence that IPV is a major public health problem affecting not only women, but also their children. Our finding supports designing IPV interventions that integrate IPV screening into routine neonatal care and childcare visits. This approach will not only contribute to monitoring and prevention of IPV but could also reduce child morbidity.
    • Self-efficacy in performing health education and knowledge of health teaching-learning principles in Jordanian baccalaureate nursing students.

      Haddad, Linda Ghazi; Ruth, M. Virginia (1993)
      This study explored Jordanian baccalaureate senior nursing students' reported self-efficacy and knowledge that is associated with one of the primary health care components. The major purposes of this study were to (1) examine the students' perceived efficacy in providing health education tasks and role, and (2) to examine the students' reported cognitive knowledge, particularly the teaching and learning principles. Health education was selected because it is the first essential constituent of primary health care. The conceptual framework reflected the integration of primary health care concept as presented by the Alma-Ata declaration, elements of self-efficacy theory, and cognitive skills which have been deduced from Bloom's construct of competency construct. Furthermore, the literature suggested that cognitive competence and high self-efficacy can be described as indicators of successful performance of the expected role actions. An exploratory descriptive survey design was used. The study sample (n = 185) consisted of all senior nursing students in the two baccalaureate nursing programs in Jordan, with 81.8% response rate. Measures included: (1) knowledge of teaching-learning principles questionnaire developed by Murdaugh; and (2) self-efficacy in relation to health education questionnaire which is an amalgamation of the Milde and Heim teaching skills inventory to test students' competence in providing health education, and Lehman's self-efficacy scale, which is used to measure students' self-judged efficacy associated with specific primary health care tasks and role. The two instruments were pilot tested in Jordan; A process called Back-translation was used to translate the questionnaires into Arabic. The analysis included descriptive statistics, correlation, multiple regression, and discriminant analysis. The analysis suggested the following findings and conclusions: (1) Students demonstrated a weak level of knowledge, and judged themselves as uncertain about their efficacy in performing their future health education tasks and role. (2) As predictors, those who had previously taken the community health nursing course, engaged in health education activities outside the formal course work, age, and home background were found to show weak to moderate relationships with self-efficacy. Other associated factors that could explain the variance in self-efficacy, such as instructional inputs, motivation, and students' beliefs and values, were not explored in this study.