• Self-efficacy in performing health education and knowledge of health teaching-learning principles in Jordanian baccalaureate nursing students.

      Haddad, Linda Ghazi; Ruth, M. Virginia (1993)
      This study explored Jordanian baccalaureate senior nursing students' reported self-efficacy and knowledge that is associated with one of the primary health care components. The major purposes of this study were to (1) examine the students' perceived efficacy in providing health education tasks and role, and (2) to examine the students' reported cognitive knowledge, particularly the teaching and learning principles. Health education was selected because it is the first essential constituent of primary health care. The conceptual framework reflected the integration of primary health care concept as presented by the Alma-Ata declaration, elements of self-efficacy theory, and cognitive skills which have been deduced from Bloom's construct of competency construct. Furthermore, the literature suggested that cognitive competence and high self-efficacy can be described as indicators of successful performance of the expected role actions. An exploratory descriptive survey design was used. The study sample (n = 185) consisted of all senior nursing students in the two baccalaureate nursing programs in Jordan, with 81.8% response rate. Measures included: (1) knowledge of teaching-learning principles questionnaire developed by Murdaugh; and (2) self-efficacy in relation to health education questionnaire which is an amalgamation of the Milde and Heim teaching skills inventory to test students' competence in providing health education, and Lehman's self-efficacy scale, which is used to measure students' self-judged efficacy associated with specific primary health care tasks and role. The two instruments were pilot tested in Jordan; A process called Back-translation was used to translate the questionnaires into Arabic. The analysis included descriptive statistics, correlation, multiple regression, and discriminant analysis. The analysis suggested the following findings and conclusions: (1) Students demonstrated a weak level of knowledge, and judged themselves as uncertain about their efficacy in performing their future health education tasks and role. (2) As predictors, those who had previously taken the community health nursing course, engaged in health education activities outside the formal course work, age, and home background were found to show weak to moderate relationships with self-efficacy. Other associated factors that could explain the variance in self-efficacy, such as instructional inputs, motivation, and students' beliefs and values, were not explored in this study.