• Pathological gambling behavior and self-concept theory: An investigation of the validity of the addictive personality syndrome (APS)

      Hudak, Clark Joseph, Jr.; Varghese, Raju (1992)
      This study investigated the relationship between the self-concept and the Addictive Personality Syndrome (APS) among a sample of pathological gamblers. Seventy-five respondents met the sampling criteria and were drawn from various Gamblers Anonymous chapters in the Baltimore/Washington/Northern Virginia metropolitan areas, and two professional treatment programs--the National Center for Pathological Gambling and the Washington Center for Pathological Gambling. Self-esteem and self-concept stability were predicted to be causally related to the dependent variable dissociation. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the New York State Stability of Self Scale, and the Jacobs Dissociation Scale were used to measure self-esteem, self-concept stability, and dissociation respectively. Data were also collected for sociodemographic variables and those for family and gambling backgrounds. The measuring instrument consisted of a 45-item questionnaire which was self-administered in about thirty minutes. The findings lend support to four of the five research hypotheses. Using ordinary least squares linear regressions, statistical analyses tentatively revealed a negative causal relationship between dissociation and self-concept stability. Contrary to prediction was that self-esteem was not found related to dissociation. A leptokurtic univariate distribution skewed toward low self-esteem appeared to account for this latter finding. As predicted, self-esteem and self-concept stability were found unrelated. Further comparative analyses revealed higher levels of self-concept stability among dissociators than non-dissociators. There were no differences between these groups on self-esteem scores. In a follow-up survey of a subset of the study's sample self-concept principles were further explicated. Thus hypotheses four and five were tentatively supported which predicted manifestations of the desired and presenting selves during gambling activity. The findings support the notion that self-concept principles can better explain components of the Addictive Personality Syndrome, and relevance of the tested variables have implications for social work theory, practice, education, and research.
    • The Relationship Between Alcohol Use and Gambling in Emerging Adulthood

      Jun, Hyun-Jin; Harrington, Donna; Sacco, Paul (2017)
      Emerging adults (ages 18-29 years) display higher prevalence and co-occurrence of alcohol use and gambling than do adults over age 29, which may lead to negative psychological symptoms, behavioral problems, and socioeconomic and medical costs. However, nationally representative research focused on the developmental relationships across these behaviors is limited. This study used multiple waves of National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) data to examine the relationships between earlier depressive symptoms (Wave III), antisocial behaviors (Wave III), alcohol use (Wave III), and gambling behaviors (Wave III) as predictors of later gambling behaviors (Wave IV) in emerging adults ages 18-29 while adjusting for relevant sociodemographic characteristics ((Waves I, II, and IV). It also examined gender differences in those prospective links. Findings from the path analysis suggested that alcohol-use behaviors were associated with antisocial behaviors but not with depressive symptoms, and earlier gambling behaviors were the best predictors of later gambling behaviors. Earlier depressive symptoms and binge drinking were associated with decreased risk of later gambling participation. Interestingly, endorsement of earlier antisocial behaviors was indirectly associated with a decreased risk of later gambling participation through its effect on binge drinking. The findings from multigroup analyses identified significant gender differences in the relationships between past-year alcohol use and heavy drinking (Wave III), binge drinking (Wave III) and gambling problems (Wave IV), and alcohol-related problems and gambling participation (Wave III). However, the only parameter statistically significant in models for both gender groups was past-year alcohol use and heavy drinking, indicating that a stronger association for men than women. The results suggest the need to focus on multiple risk behaviors and support for screening and early intervention for these risk behaviors (i.e., alcohol use and gambling) as a means of secondary prevention in emerging adults. Future research should further investigate the roles of antisocial behaviors, binge drinking, and gambling during emerging adulthood in vulnerability for future alcohol and gambling problems and consider other confounding factors and gender-specific risk factors.