• A study of the perceptions of transformational versus transactional leadership style as an influence on nursing faculty job satisfaction in associate and baccalaureate degree programs in Taiwan

      Shieh, Hueih-Lirng; Mills, Mary Etta C. (1996)
      The higher nursing education environment and health care systems in Taiwan are rapidly changing. The demand by consumers for higher education and educational quality is increasing. Nursing faculty need to work more to meet the demands of their jobs. As a result, job dissatisfaction may occur. Nursing deans or directors need to use innovative leadership skills to retain a satisfied work force. The theoretical and empirical evidence of superiority of transformational leadership over transactional leadership has been found in the United States. However, whether or not transformational leadership is more effective than transactional leadership on nursing faculty job satisfaction in Taiwan has remained an unexplored research area. Therefore, the purposes of the cross-cultural survey were to explore: (1) nursing deans'/directors' leadership styles as perceived by their nursing faculty in nursing associate and baccalaureate degree programs in Taiwan, and (2) the influence of transformational leadership style, relative to transactional leadership style, on nursing faculty job satisfaction in nursing associate and baccalaureate degree programs in Taiwan. Five hundred and seventeen nursing faculty in eighteen associate and baccalaureate degree programs in Taiwan were asked to respond to questionnaires and an open-ended question. Two hundred and thirty three (45.1%) returned usable questionnaires. One hundred and twenty two (52.4%) complete data sets were received and used for analysis. Data analysis procedures included: descriptive statistics, univariate repeated-measure ANOVA, hierarchical multiple regression, ANCOVA, and content analysis. The findings showed that the predominate leadership styles of nursing deans and directors were transformational and transactional. Idealized Influence, Intellectual Stimulation, and Contingent Reward leadership styles positively predicted satisfaction with the style of leadership. Active Management-by-Exception leadership style negatively predicted faculty satisfaction. Nursing faculty who were led by transformational deans/directors had the highest frequency of satisfaction with leadership style, followed by those led by transactional deans/directors, and then those led by Laissez-Faire deans/directors. That nursing deans and directors should consider the faculty members' perceptions in implementation of transformational and Contingent Reward leadership styles was suggested.