• Correlates of nursing faculty scholarly productivity in colleges and universities in Taiwan, Republic of China

      Hsu, Man-Ying Fang; Holt, Frieda M. (1991)
      The purpose of this exploratory-descriptive study was to determine and to describe predictors of nursing faculty scholarly productivity (NFSP) in higher education in Taiwan of Republic of China. A systems model was developed based on the Andreoli & Musser's (1984) systems model of nursing faculty productivity to determine selected variables of the study. Cultural impacts on NFSP are considered. The Nursing Faculty Scholarly Productivity (NFSP) Inventory was developed to measure the phenomena of nursing faculty scholarly productivity in Taiwan. A weighting scheme used as a standard index was established by nursing committee members to increase the reliability of the measurement of NFSP. Test-retest reliability and content validity were tested and are acceptable at a predetermined level. A nationwide sample of 242 respondents (all female) had a response rate of 52.4%. All subjects worked full-time in one of sixteen colleges and universities across the northern, middle and southern regions in Taiwan, republic of China. The survey was done by mail. The deans/directors of the subjects were invited to provide organizational data. Two hundred twenty-eight usable questionnaires were included in the data analysis. Data analysis procedures included descriptive statistics, oneway ANOVA, and multiple regression analysis. Findings suggested that the systems model was a useful framework to determine variables of the NFSP. Significant predictors of NFSP in three subsystems were identified. Both teaching and research role are preferred with teaching as their primary concern, length of nursing teaching career, associate professor, teaching assistant, and aged 46-50 in human subsystem are significant predictors of NFSP. Resource support match, printed policy and being employed at a private senior college in organizational subsystem are significant predictors of NFSP. Number of persons cared for in family subsystem is a significant predictor of NFSP. Of three subsystems, the human subsystem predictors were found to have the most explanatory power of variance in NFSP in this study. Methodological issues in this study are discussed, recommendations are made for future research, and implications for improving nursing faculty scholarly productivity are also addressed.
    • A study of the perceptions of transformational versus transactional leadership style as an influence on nursing faculty job satisfaction in associate and baccalaureate degree programs in Taiwan

      Shieh, Hueih-Lirng; Mills, Mary Etta C. (1996)
      The higher nursing education environment and health care systems in Taiwan are rapidly changing. The demand by consumers for higher education and educational quality is increasing. Nursing faculty need to work more to meet the demands of their jobs. As a result, job dissatisfaction may occur. Nursing deans or directors need to use innovative leadership skills to retain a satisfied work force. The theoretical and empirical evidence of superiority of transformational leadership over transactional leadership has been found in the United States. However, whether or not transformational leadership is more effective than transactional leadership on nursing faculty job satisfaction in Taiwan has remained an unexplored research area. Therefore, the purposes of the cross-cultural survey were to explore: (1) nursing deans'/directors' leadership styles as perceived by their nursing faculty in nursing associate and baccalaureate degree programs in Taiwan, and (2) the influence of transformational leadership style, relative to transactional leadership style, on nursing faculty job satisfaction in nursing associate and baccalaureate degree programs in Taiwan. Five hundred and seventeen nursing faculty in eighteen associate and baccalaureate degree programs in Taiwan were asked to respond to questionnaires and an open-ended question. Two hundred and thirty three (45.1%) returned usable questionnaires. One hundred and twenty two (52.4%) complete data sets were received and used for analysis. Data analysis procedures included: descriptive statistics, univariate repeated-measure ANOVA, hierarchical multiple regression, ANCOVA, and content analysis. The findings showed that the predominate leadership styles of nursing deans and directors were transformational and transactional. Idealized Influence, Intellectual Stimulation, and Contingent Reward leadership styles positively predicted satisfaction with the style of leadership. Active Management-by-Exception leadership style negatively predicted faculty satisfaction. Nursing faculty who were led by transformational deans/directors had the highest frequency of satisfaction with leadership style, followed by those led by transactional deans/directors, and then those led by Laissez-Faire deans/directors. That nursing deans and directors should consider the faculty members' perceptions in implementation of transformational and Contingent Reward leadership styles was suggested.