• Utilizing Charged Membrane Technology for Endotoxin Removal with Potential Use in Endodontic Procedures

      Yeung, Wing-Yee; Ernst, Robert K.; 0000-0002-3571-2484 (2019)
      AIM: To examine the application of a positively-charged polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane for removing liquids and endotoxins. METHODOLOGY: Absorbency and endotoxin removal of paper points from various manufacturers was compared with PVDF membrane. The paper points and the PVDF membrane were evaluated for endotoxin binding using Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) assay. New paper points and the PVDF membrane were evaluated for the presence of endotoxins. RESULTS: Absorbency and endotoxin removal with the 0.22µm PVDF membrane was significantly greater than any of the paper points tested. There was significantly more endotoxin found in new paper points compared to the PVDF membrane. CONCLUSION: Our study showed that the 0.22μm PVDF membrane was significantly more absorbent and removed more endotoxins than paper points. Commercially available paper points were found to be contaminated with endotoxins and mechanical agitation of the PVDF membrane did not release endotoxin.