• Life stress, distress symptoms, and social supports among Korean immigrants who own small retail businesses

      Shin, Yeonghee; Ruth, M. Virginia (1992)
      The purpose of this descriptive correlational survey was to describe the relationship between life stress, distress symptoms, social support among Korean immigrant businessmen. Korean small businessmen (N = 100) completed a questionnaire developed by the researcher consisting of measures of life stress, distress symptoms, and social support. Subjects were recruited from customers of a Korean owned wholesale store. The typical profile of the sample was a middle-aged married-man, with some college education, Christian, in this country about 8 years, and who worked 6 or 7 days a week and put in 12 or 13 hours a day. The subject's family helped in his store and his clientele were mostly African-Americans. The findings suggest that Korean businessmen in the United States experience low level of life stress and distress symptoms during their adjustment in the host country. Stepwise multiple regression and ANCOVA were used to answer the research questions relating to life stress, distress, and social support. Stepwise regression yield distress symptoms, English fluency, and weekly working hours as the best predictor variables for life stress. This set of predictor variables significantly predicted 41% of variance in life stress. With distress symptoms as the criterion variable, 28% of the variance in distress was explained by life stress and education. ANCOVA showed no support for either the direct or buffering models of social support among Korean immigrant businessmen. Content analysis of open-ended questions provided added support for these findings. When the Pearson Product-Moment correlation method was used for additional analyses, variables of education, length of residence in US, life satisfaction, self-evaluation of health, and social support were significantly associated with variables of life stress and distress symptoms.
    • The relationships among psychological hardiness, faculty practice involvement, and perception of role stress of nurse educators

      Lambert, Clinton E., Jr.; Ruth, M. Virginia (1991)
      The primary purpose of this descriptive cross-sectional survey of nurse educators, employed full-time by a NLN accredited baccalaureate and higher degree granting school of nursing with both a graduate and an undergraduate program, was to identify if the variables, psychological hardiness, faculty practice involvement, and perceived role stress, were inter-related. An additional purpose was to determine whether there were differences between those involved in faculty practice and those not involved in faculty practice. It was predicted that: (1) the nurse educators perception of role stress would be negatively related to the level of psychological hardiness, (2) the perception of role stress by nurse educators involved in faculty practice would be greater than the perception of role stress by nurse educators not involved in faculty practice, and (3) the level of psychological hardiness of nurse educators involved in faculty practice would be greater than the level of psychological hardiness of nurse educators not involved in faculty practice. Each of 1345 identified nurse educators, whose name had been provided by the deans of 34 randomly selected schools of nursing, was requested to anonymously respond to a mailed, self-administered, pencil and paper questionnaire comprised of three instruments (Demographic Data Questionnaire, Personal Views Survey, and Role Conflict and Role Ambiguity Scale). A 66.5% subject response rate was obtained. Data from 871 of the respondents' questionnaires were analyzed using descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. The nurse educators perception of role stress was found to be significantly negatively correlated to the level of psychological hardiness. No significant difference was found between those involved in faculty practice and those not involved in faculty practice with respect to perception of role stress or to level of psychological hardiness. The results of this study suggest that faculty practice involvement of nurse educators in NLN accredited baccalaureate and higher degree granting schools of nursing with both a graduate and an undergraduate program is a self-selective process.
    • Self-efficacy in performing health education and knowledge of health teaching-learning principles in Jordanian baccalaureate nursing students.

      Haddad, Linda Ghazi; Ruth, M. Virginia (1993)
      This study explored Jordanian baccalaureate senior nursing students' reported self-efficacy and knowledge that is associated with one of the primary health care components. The major purposes of this study were to (1) examine the students' perceived efficacy in providing health education tasks and role, and (2) to examine the students' reported cognitive knowledge, particularly the teaching and learning principles. Health education was selected because it is the first essential constituent of primary health care. The conceptual framework reflected the integration of primary health care concept as presented by the Alma-Ata declaration, elements of self-efficacy theory, and cognitive skills which have been deduced from Bloom's construct of competency construct. Furthermore, the literature suggested that cognitive competence and high self-efficacy can be described as indicators of successful performance of the expected role actions. An exploratory descriptive survey design was used. The study sample (n = 185) consisted of all senior nursing students in the two baccalaureate nursing programs in Jordan, with 81.8% response rate. Measures included: (1) knowledge of teaching-learning principles questionnaire developed by Murdaugh; and (2) self-efficacy in relation to health education questionnaire which is an amalgamation of the Milde and Heim teaching skills inventory to test students' competence in providing health education, and Lehman's self-efficacy scale, which is used to measure students' self-judged efficacy associated with specific primary health care tasks and role. The two instruments were pilot tested in Jordan; A process called Back-translation was used to translate the questionnaires into Arabic. The analysis included descriptive statistics, correlation, multiple regression, and discriminant analysis. The analysis suggested the following findings and conclusions: (1) Students demonstrated a weak level of knowledge, and judged themselves as uncertain about their efficacy in performing their future health education tasks and role. (2) As predictors, those who had previously taken the community health nursing course, engaged in health education activities outside the formal course work, age, and home background were found to show weak to moderate relationships with self-efficacy. Other associated factors that could explain the variance in self-efficacy, such as instructional inputs, motivation, and students' beliefs and values, were not explored in this study.
    • A study of family life education experiences among Chewa grandmothers, mothers, and daughters in Malawi

      Banda, Eta Elizabeth; Ruth, M. Virginia; Kreider, Mildred Sherk, 1936- (1991)
      A significant problem in adolescent health care in Malawi is a lack of information about family life education. The purpose of this descriptive and correlational study was to describe family life education experiences of Chewa grandmothers, mothers and daughters as a means of identifying the nature of the organization and type of educational programme/learning experiences that traditionally have been offered for developmental task readiness for adult life. The subjects for preliminary interviews were limited to three sets of grandmothers, mothers and daughters, i.e. nine participants. This data was used to develop the tool utilized for data collection in the study. The sample size for this study was 300. Data analysis was carried out using descriptive statistics, chi-square, analysis of variance and content analysis. Family life education organization was primarily perceived to be either the responsibility of the family or a shared responsibility between the family, village and other social organizations. Family life education was mainly informally conducted within the family, although multiple resources were utilized for teaching. Music in combination with verbal communication played an important role in instruction and reading was observed to be almost absent as a method of teaching across all generations. Although mostly of the teaching was done didactically there was some practical experience in the sex education component where a female adolescent was given a male partner to learn and this male was called a 'fisi'. Significant differences were found in virtually all organizational variables, by generation and area of residence. Ten categories of family life education learning experiences were identified and tested for differences on the basis of generation and area of residence. The results revealed statistically significant intergenerational as well as geographic differences in learning experiences in sex education, menstruation and sanitary towel care, anatomy and physiology of the female reproductive system, socialization into adulthood, relationships with parents, elders, peers of the same and opposite sex, and disabled persons, traditional practices, psychological and spiritual issues. In addition analysis of variance to examine differences in traditional values between grandmothers, mothers and daughters revealed a statistically significant main effect for generation on traditional family values. (Abstract shortened with permission of author.)
    • Women's self-efficacy for prevention of sexual risk behavior

      Hale, Patty Joy; Ruth, M. Virginia (1994)
      The purpose of this study was to determine whether efficacy expectation and outcome expectation are significant predictors of sexually transmitted disease (STD) preventing behaviors. The study was based on Self-Efficacy Theory. Three hundred nine female college students attending a student health gynecology clinic completed a 56-item self-administered questionnaire comprised of items both used in previous research and developed by the investigator. The major variables of the study were knowledge of STD prevention, perceived risk of acquiring a STD, outcome expectation of practicing STD preventive behavior, efficacy expectation (perceived ability) to perform safe behaviors, sources of efficacy information, and sexual behavior over the six months prior to the survey. Sexual behavior indicators included condom use, number of and familiarity of partners, and partner screening. Women indicated that efficacy expectancy was lowest for refusing sexual intercourse in a variety of situations, and highest for communicating about preventing STDs. The most common sources of information on STD prevention that college women cited were friends, magazines, and television. Sources of persuasive efficacy information about STD prevention included friends, boyfriends and parents. Hierarchical regression was performed to identify whether efficacy and outcome expectation explained a significant amount of variance in sexual behavior beyond that explained by knowledge and perceived risk. Knowledge and perceived risk were entered at step one, and efficacy and outcome expectation were entered via forward procedure at step two. Knowledge and perceived risk explained a significant amount of variance in sexual behavior (F = 13.13; df = 2, 302; p < .0001), and efficacy expectancy 24% of the variance (F = 31.13; df = 3, 301; p < .0001). Outcome expectancy did not significantly explain additional variance in sexual behavior. These findings indicate that nursing interventions should be directed toward enhancing women's efficacy expectancy to prevent STDs. Methods of improving efficacy expectancy in preventing STDs include engaging in role-play to practice behaviors, observing others perform this behavior, such as through videos, and persuading women through encouragement of their ability to perform these behaviors.