• Novel effects of piRNAs and pfeRNAs in lung somatic cells

      Gable, Tyler; Mao, Li, M.D.; Schneider, Abraham (2017)
      Aberrant expression and function of PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) and piRNA-Likes (pilRNAs or piR-Ls) have been reported in various cancers. The majority of current reports have identified or assumed roles of these pilRNA that require association with PIWI family proteins to affect either transposable element silencing or mRNA transcript silencing through base pair matching. However, new reports are describing pilRNA which are capable of regulating physiological and pathological conditions through interactions with non-PIWI and non-PIWI-related proteins and whose interaction is necessary for the function of the binding partner protein. Specific cases examined in lung tissue have also found evidence that such interactions may be occurring at critical phosphorylated residues on the target proteins and suggests an early mechanism through which such interactions may occur. Therefore, we hypothesized that somatic expression of piRNA and piRNA-Like non-coding RNAs play active and dynamic roles in the progression of lung squamous cell and adenocarcinoma via phosphorylation-site interactions of PIWI-independent mechanisms. We began our investigations with RNA sequencing profiles of differentially expressed piRNA and pilRNA in lung somatic cells. Guided by expression data, we explored the phenotype and mechanism of action of potentially significant pilRNA species. We began with our study investigating a piR-L species which induces chemoresistance to cisplatin-based therapy by inhibiting apoptosis in lung squamous cell carcinoma. Next, we examined mitochondrial piRNA57125 which associates with Far Upstream Element Binding Protein 1 (FUBP1) to promote lung adenocarcinoma tumorigenesis. Finally, we performed a phosphorylation-wide sncRNA screen which reveals Protein Functional Effector sncRNAs (pfeRNAs) in human lung somatic cells. Collectively, these studies have supported the hypothesis that pilRNA and pfeRNA do play critical roles in the progression of lung squamous cell and adenocarcinomas and may, in fact, do so through phosphorylation-site interactions. As a result of these studies, we have re-named these pilRNA as pfeRNA, a more encompassing and descriptive terminology which is described below.