Browsing School of Nursing by Subject "Vaccination--standards"
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Implementation of a Pneumococcal Immunization Standing Order Protocol in Long-Term CareProblem & Purpose Streptococcus pneumonia is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality of adults who are immunocompromised and of advanced age. It is the standard of care to vaccinate all high-risk adults (18-64 years) and adults 65 years and older with two pneumococcal vaccines (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2015). However, pneumococcal immunization rates remain below the HeathyPeople2020 target goal of 90% nationally and locally (Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion [ODPHP], 2019). The objective of this quality improvement (QI) project was to implement the Immunization Action Coalition (2017) pneumococcal standing order protocol to increase the percentage of adult patients screened for vaccine need by 90%, and percentage of total residents vaccinated according to CDC recommendations by 10%. Methods The strategy of this QI project was to educate registered nurses to implement a pneumococcal standing order protocol, in a privately owned, 120-bed, long-term care (LTC) center in suburban Maryland. The design of this QI project was based on the diffusion of innovation theory, the 4 pillars practice transformation program (4 Pillars), and the Mobilize-Assess-Plan-Implement-Track (MAP-IT) process model. Weekly frequency distributions were used to examine the screening and vaccination rates, and a chi squared (X2) test was performed post intervention to examine the significance of intervention on vaccination rates. Results The total number of LTC residents (n=100) were White (66%), Black (32%), other (2%), with an average age of 83 years. Pneumococcal immunization rates increased from 56% pre-intervention to 82% post-intervention, and screening rates for vaccination need increased from 0% to 100%. A chi-squared test for independence indicated a significant relationship between vaccination status and implantation of the SOP intervention (p = 0.046, df = 1, n = 100). Conclusions This QI initiative showed that a systematic process change is feasible and can improve pneumococcal vaccination rates in a single institution. The findings may not be applicable to centers without an electronic medical record software to document immunizations or dedicated QI team. Ongoing work should focus on the perceived self-efficacy of LTC nursing staff to effectively implement a behavior change, and skills to provide strong recommendations for immunizations.