• A Meta-Analysis of Transformational Leadership and Subordinate Nursing Personnel Organizational Commitment, Job Satisfaction, and Turnover Intentions

      Barlow, Kathleen; Geiger-Brown, Jeanne (2013)
      Background: The ANA and ANCC have identified transformational leadership as the style of leadership essential for nursing personnel to meet the challenges of the 21st century health care environment. Personnel shortages and escalating clinical demands on staff require nurse leader attention to organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and turnover intentions to retain high quality staff. While there are many correlational studies examining the relationship between transformational leadership and nursing personnel organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and turnover intentions, results are inconsistent. Additionally, there is little information about factors which may account for variations in these relationships. Aims: The aims of this study were: 1) to examine the overall magnitude of effects between transformational leadership (TFL) and nursing personnel organizational commitment (OC), job satisfaction (JS), and turnover intentions (TI) across a sample of studies, and 2) to evaluate variability in the magnitude of effects according to selected moderator variables. Methods: Search strategies included accessing computerized databases, emailing researchers, consulting experts, and footnote-chasing. Two independent, qualified reviewers reached consensus on inclusion criteria for selected studies, data extraction, and quality ratings. Data analysis was conducted using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis (Biostat, 2005) statistical software. Results: A total of 28 studies (k = 28) with 9,572 nursing personnel met the inclusion criteria for this meta-analysis. Pooled effect size estimates demonstrated statistically significant effect size relationships between TFL and OC (k = 14, MWES = .292), JS (k = 22, MWES = .596), and TI (k = 5, MWES = -.307). Sub-group analyses indicated significant heterogeneity across studies according to type of TFL instrumentation, subordinate nursing personnel patient care position, number of research sites, century of study, and type of publication. Sensitivity analysis showed significant variability according to higher and lower quality ratings for studies. Conclusion: Transformational leadership plays an important role to varying degrees in nursing personnel commitment to the organization, satisfaction at work, and staff retention. Nurse leaders can use knowledge of factors impacting relationships between TFL and subordinate nursing personnel OC, JS, and TI to inform organizational decision-making and maximize retention of quality subordinate nursing personnel