• An Association between Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake, Body Mass Index and Caries Prevalence in Children 6-9 Years Old

      Bhadila, Ghalia; Tinanoff, Norman (2017)
      Purpose: The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship between sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption, body mass index (BMI) and dental caries prevalence in children between 6 to 9 years old. Methods: Parents of 123 children 6 to 9 years-old who visited the Pediatric Dental Clinic in the University of Maryland Baltimore participated in this cross-sectional study. Using the 15-item Beverage Questionnaire, parents reported the frequency and the amount of sweetened beverages their children consumed daily. We obtained height and weight of their child to calculate the BMI. Data on presence of dental caries were extracted from the electronic dental records. Results: One hundred twenty-three children participated in the study; 76 (61.8%) were females and 47 (38.2%) were males. Mean age of participants is 7.63 years old (SD=1.07) with the mean BMI is 18.15 (SD=3.17). Approximately, 50% of the participants were African American, 23% Hispanic, 27% reported as others. One hundred and nine is the total number of participants reportedly consumed any form of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) with different quantities and frequencies. Pearson correlation showed no significant correlation between caries and BMI (P=0.18), and no significant correlation between caries and SSB consumption (P=0.41). Moreover, there was no significant correlation between BMI and SSB consumption (P=0.64). T-tests also demonstrated non-significant difference in the SSB consumption level based on caries prevalence (P=0. 41). However, Pearson correlation showed a significant correlation between fruit juice consumption and caries (r=0.26, p=0.01), and a non-significant inverse correlation between fruit juice consumption and BMI (r=-0.14, p=0.17).
    • Genioglossus EMG Activity in Pediatric Obstructive Sleep Apnea Patients

      Chae, Thomas; Pae, Eung-Kwon (2015)
      Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common condition in childhood and can result in severe complications if left untreated. Genioglossus electromyography (EMG) signals were obtained from ten children during quiet breathing, deep breathing, and maximum protrusion. We expected similar EMG readings during quiet breathing; but when there is increased respiratory drive during deep breathing, EMG recordings should be higher. Moreover, OSA patients fatigue more easily so we expected lower EMG readings during maximum protrusion. The OSA group had quiet breathing EMG signal of 0.192 mV.s (S.D. ±0.92) versus control 0.213 mV.s (S.D. ±0.112). During deep breathing, OSA children had higher EMG signals of 0.532 mV.s (S.D. ±0.317) compared to control 0.218 mV.s (S.D. ±0.096). OSA children had lower genioglossus activity at 0.171 mV.s (S.D. ±0.044) compared to control 0.247 mV.s (S.D. ±0.059). In conclusion, EMG provides an additional tool to differentiate patients with various types of sleep disordered breathing.