• The Diagnostic Utility of Cancer Stem Cell Marker CD44 in Early Detection of Oral Cancer

      Alsalem, Bader; Meiller, Timothy F. (2019)
      The incidence of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) is expected to increase in the coming decades. In recent years, cancer biomarkers have emerged as a promising diagnostic and prognostic tool for various cancers. The cluster differentiation antigen (CD44) is among the most frequently identified cancer stem cell markers in solid tumors. Using immunohistochemistry labeling in previously diagnosed specimens, we aimed to analyze the utility of CD44 in early diagnosis of OSCC. Biopsy specimen subgroups of lateroventral tongue revealed an increased proportion of cells staining positive for CD44 in the epithelial samples of OSCC compared with erosive lichen planus and oral dysplastic lesions. CD44, in combination with other oral biomarkers, therefore, has the potential to assist in the early diagnosis of OSCC. Future studies with larger sample sizes and multiple biomarkers should be carried out, utilizing a pre-determined IHC staining and interpretation strategy to promote reproducibility of evidence.