• An Association between Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake, Body Mass Index and Caries Prevalence in Children 6-9 Years Old

      Bhadila, Ghalia; Tinanoff, Norman (2017)
      Purpose: The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship between sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption, body mass index (BMI) and dental caries prevalence in children between 6 to 9 years old. Methods: Parents of 123 children 6 to 9 years-old who visited the Pediatric Dental Clinic in the University of Maryland Baltimore participated in this cross-sectional study. Using the 15-item Beverage Questionnaire, parents reported the frequency and the amount of sweetened beverages their children consumed daily. We obtained height and weight of their child to calculate the BMI. Data on presence of dental caries were extracted from the electronic dental records. Results: One hundred twenty-three children participated in the study; 76 (61.8%) were females and 47 (38.2%) were males. Mean age of participants is 7.63 years old (SD=1.07) with the mean BMI is 18.15 (SD=3.17). Approximately, 50% of the participants were African American, 23% Hispanic, 27% reported as others. One hundred and nine is the total number of participants reportedly consumed any form of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) with different quantities and frequencies. Pearson correlation showed no significant correlation between caries and BMI (P=0.18), and no significant correlation between caries and SSB consumption (P=0.41). Moreover, there was no significant correlation between BMI and SSB consumption (P=0.64). T-tests also demonstrated non-significant difference in the SSB consumption level based on caries prevalence (P=0. 41). However, Pearson correlation showed a significant correlation between fruit juice consumption and caries (r=0.26, p=0.01), and a non-significant inverse correlation between fruit juice consumption and BMI (r=-0.14, p=0.17).
    • C-Reactive Protein as a Biomarker of Oral Health and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in Healthy and CV Disease Subjects

      Alzalzalah, Ahmed; Meiller, Timothy F. (2017)
      Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading global cause of death. Elevated CRP is considered a biomarker for the development of CVD. CRP is elevated in inflammatory periodontal diseases considered by a co-morbidity of CVD. This project contrasted CRP in young healthy, elderly healthy and elderly with CVD subjects relating these to gingival index (GI) and body-mass index (BMI) as parameters of inflammation. The data confirm a correlation between GI, BMI with CRP levels and in turn the risk of CVD. Selected young subjects had CRP levels similar to the elderly CVD subjects. This suggests that young healthy subjects with elevated GI, coupled with high BMI may be at a higher risk to develop CVD, as they age. Future studies should focus on these subjects longitudinally to assess the development of systemic disease, in particular CVD. Modalities to lower risk factors using CRP as a biomarker of efficacy may be developed.