• The Association of Statin Intake and Healing of Apical Periodontitis After Root Canal Treatment

      Algofaily, Maha; Tordik, Patricia (2017)
      The aim of this study was to analyze the association between statin intake and apical periodontitis healing after root canal treatment. Patients who self-reported statin use during the treatment and patients who reported never taking statins were included. All who received treatment on a tooth with a periapical radiolucency in the Postgraduate Endodontics Clinic, University of Maryland School of Dentistry (2011-2014) were invited for a two to five-year follow-up examination. Sixty teeth were examined, in 30 patients taking statins and 30 not taking statins (control). Healing was determined using the periapical index. Two calibrated endodontists assessed outcomes blinded to preoperative status. Fisher's Exact Test (FET) showed a significant difference in healing at the two-year or greater follow-up in patients taking statins compared to those who did not (93.0% vs. 70%, FET, p=.02). This study revealed a significant association between statin intake and healing of apical periodontitis after root canal treatment.
    • Estimating accuracy of the CBVT InVesalius Imaging Software to measure the volume of simulated periapical defects in a human cadaver mandible

      Khan, Mir MA; Tordik, Patricia (2018)
      TITLE: Estimating accuracy of the CBVT InVesalius Imaging Software to measure the volume of simulated periapical defects in a human cadaver mandible. AIM: This in vitro study tested the accuracy of CBVT InVesalius software to determine volumetric data as compared to true volume. METHODOLOGY: Ten artificial periapical osseous defects of similar size were created bilaterally in the posterior region of a human cadaver mandible. Vinyl polysiloxane impression material was injected to create a replica of each defect. The true volume of each replica was obtained using Archimedes' method and compared to volumetric measurements as determined by InVesalius. Statistical analysis was performed with one-way ANOVA and the significance level was set to p ≤ .05. RESULTS: The mean difference in volume measurement for InVesalius (.0454 cc) and Archimedes' method (.0436 cc) was very small (p = .48). CONCLUSION: InVesalius software appeared to accurately measure the true volume of the periapical defects.
    • Nanogel-Based Scaffold in Endodontics

      Kheirieh, Sanam; Tordik, Patricia (2016)
      Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate a degradable nanogel-based scaffold with antibacterial content. Methods: This nanogel design consisted of the cross-linker, polyethyleneglycol (PEG 4600) with 3-dimensional network. This polymer degrades over time (~30 days), delivering a controlled release of antibiotic. Amoxicillin was added to the scaffold with 25 wt% (n=26). Nanogel-scaffold only and amoxicillin only were used as controls. Agar diffusion test against E. faecalis was performed at eight time intervals (days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, 21, 30). One-Way ANOVA was used to compare the antibacterial properties of experimental groups at the eight different times. Results: The antibacterial properties for experimental plates, at the different times, were not significantly different (F=.624, p=.74). Based on the profile, the scaffold-only group showed a smaller inhibition zone compared to the two other groups. The antibacterial profiles for the experimental group and the antibiotic-only group were similar. Conclusion: This particular scaffold presented antibacterial properties. Findings suggest that nanogel-modified scaffolds may have potential use for drug-delivery in endodontics.
    • Quaternary Ammonium and Nano Silver in Epoxy Resin Based Endodontic Sealer

      Seung, Juheon; Tordik, Patricia (2017)
      The purpose of this study is to investigate how the addition of antibacterial materials, Di-methylaminododecyl methacrylate (DMAHDM), and Nano-Silver (NAg) to AH Plus® will affect the mechanical and antibacterial properties of the sealer. Setting time, flow, dimensional change and solubility were evaluated as a set of mechanical tests according to ANSI/ADA specifications. Direct contact test (DCT) was performed to evaluate antibacterial properties at day 1,7 and 14 after mixing against E.faecalis. The DCT was measured with optical density (OD) and colony-forming units (CFU) counts. When 0.15%NAg and 2.5% DMAHDM was incorporated into AH Plus®, there was no significant difference in mechanical properties and improved antibacterial properties through 14 days when compared to AH Plus® alone. This study found that up to 0.15% NAg and 2.5% DMAHDM can be added to AH Plus® without changing the existing mechanical properties of AH Plus® while incorporating long-term antibacterial properties.
    • The Relationship between Short Term Healing of Periapical Lesions and Glycemic Control

      Tawady, Tontesh Shivakumar; Tordik, Patricia (2016)
      Aim: This study aimed to examine the relationship between HbA1c level and short-term healing of periapical lesions. Methods: Patients were recruited for the study (n=21). After RCT, the final radiograph was taken, and the patient's blood was drawn for HbA1c analysis. The patients returned in six months for a recall examination. The Periapical Index (PAI) scoring system was used to compare the difference in the periapical status from the initial appointment and at the recall appointment. Results: Out of 21 recruited patients, eight patients returned for recall. To investigate the rate of healing and how it related to the patients' Hba1c levels, Pearson's r was done with the HbA1c of the recall patients (N=8) and the level of healing (difference in PAI). This correlation was r= -.474. Conclusion: There was a negative correlation between HbA1c level and the level of healing of periapical lesion, this correlation was not statistically significant.
    • The Relationship Between Short Term Healing of Periapical Lesions and Glycemic Control: A Pilot Study

      Zhou, Zuwu; Chand, Priya; Tordik, Patricia (2019)
      The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between HbA1c level and short-term healing of periapical lesions after non-surgical root canal treatment (NSRCT). After NSRCT, digital periapical radiographs were taken and blood samples were drawn for HbA1c analysis. To assess short-term healing (PAI difference), subjects returned after six months for a radiograph and blood draw. A calibration exercise established the reliability of the PAI scoring process. Thirty-eight subjects returned for the recall. The relationship between HbA1c level and also the co-variables, with healing was explained using Spearman’s rho and logistic regression. There was a significant correlation between healing and HbA1c level (rs = -.52, p ≤.0001), age (rs = -.44, p ≤.003), recall days (rs =.29, p ≤.036), and cardiovascular status (rs = -.34, p ≤.018). A final logistic regression showed a significant relationship between HbA1c level and short-term healing of periapical lesions (R = .62, p≤ .05).