• A clinical evaluation of the ability of finishing files to supplement the removal of bacteria and endotoxin from primarily infected root canals (Part I- Initial evaluation)

      Kim, Eunice; Martinho, Frederico C. (2020)
      Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of XP-endo Finisher (XPF) to supplement the removal of bacteria and endotoxin from primary infected root canals after instrumentation. Methodology: This randomized and blinded controlled trial included eight subjects. Instrumentation was performed using Vortex Blue or XP-endo Shaper, followed by supplemental instrumentation with XPF. All canals were irrigated with 2.5% sodium hypochlorite. Bacterial and endotoxin samples were taken using sterile paper points. Samples were collected before and after instrumentation and after XPF. Results: Bacteria was present in all root canals. After XPF, bacterial mean was reduced from 255 ± 311.82 CFU/mL to 2.5 ± 7.07 CFU/mL (p= .056). Endotoxin was detected in all root canals by the LAL method (KQCL test). After XPF, endotoxin mean was significantly reduced from .85 ± .26 EU/mL to .03 ± .01 EU/mL (p= .00004). Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that the supplemental use of the XP-endo Finisher after root canal instrumentation was effective in significantly reducing endotoxin but not bacteria present in primary endodontic infections.
    • Efficacy of Different File Systems in Removing Gutta-Percha Cones Coated with Nanoparticles and Bioceramic Root Canal Sealer

      Barak, Yaakov; Martinho, Frederico C. (2019)
      INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study is to compare the ability of the XP-3D (XP) Shaper (Brasseler USA, Savannah, GA), TRUShape 3D (TS) Conforming Files (Dentsply, Tulsa, OK), and Vortex Blue (VB, Dentsply) files to remove gutta-percha and BC Sealer (BCS, Brasseler USA, Savannah, GA) from root canals, and to compare the time necessary for retreatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 36 extracted single-rooted mandibular premolars were instrumented, and obturated with gutta-percha and BCS. The teeth were then retreated with either XP, TS, or VB. The teeth were sectioned and analyzed with a digital microscope at 35x and ImageJ software for the percentage of material on the canal walls. RESULTS: All groups removed obturation material to a similar extent. XP was significantly faster than TS or VB. CONCLUSION: There is no significant difference in the ability of XP, TS, or VB in removing obturation material, however, retreatment with XP is significantly faster.