• The Business Case Bibliography: 100 Review Papers on the Workplace Value of Mental Health, Addiction and EAP Services

      Attridge, Mark (Employee Assistance Society of North America, 2011-12)
      This Note provides a list of 100 recent review papers on the topic of making the business case for providing mental health and addiction services to employees and their family members. This list has a special emphasis on employee assistance program (EAP) services, which already serve many work organizations and are often an effective source of referrals into mental health and addiction care treatment for more serious cases and for immediate short­‐term counseling for more minor cases. Most of these works examine financial issues of cost­‐benefit, cost­‐effectiveness and return on investment (ROI) as well as other behavior­‐ based outcomes of value to employers such as improvements in employee performance, employee engagement, positive work culture, risk management, work absence, work productivity/presenteeism, health care costs, disability costs, and turnover. The list includes works from the United States, Canada, and other Western countries.
    • The Business Value of EAP: A Conceptual Model

      Attridge, Mark; Amaral, Thomas M., 1952-; Bjornson, Tom; Goplerud, Eric N.; Herlihy, Patricia A.; McPherson, Tracy L.; Paul, Rich; Routledge, Sandra; Sharar, David A., 1961-; Stephenson, Diane; et al. (Employee Assistance Society of North America, 2010-05)
      This Research Note describes how to conceptualize the different ways that employee assistance services provide business value to an organization. The model features three major categories or levels of value: Workplace Performance Value – which has cost savings from employee productivity, absence and other human capital areas; Benefit Cost Value – which has cost savings from health care, disability and other employee benefits; and Organizational Value – which has cost savings from risk management and improved organizational development.
    • The Business Value of Employee Assistance: A Review of the Art and Science of ROI (EAPA 2013 Keynote Address)

      Attridge, Mark (2013-10-19)
      Dr. Attridge reviews the science, strategies and future trends influencing the business value of employee assistance program (EAP) services. The talk opens by examining the empirical evidence relevant to the return on investment (ROI) for workplace behavioral health services. Over 1,000 individual research works now exist globally that support various aspects of the business case, including dozens of studies specifically on the outcomes and cost-offset value of EAP services. Next, the themes from this research are used to formulate different strategies for making the business case for EAP. Four conceptual models – called the Primary, Pareto, Productivity, and Partnership approaches to value – are each described and illustrated with data examples. These approaches work best when combined into a more comprehensive model that reflects the mix of services delivered by the EAP. Finally, several "big-picture" trends are identified in the areas of technology tools, outcome measures, healthy workplace culture and technology. These trends offer important new opportunities for increasing the business value of EAPs. Reference List included.
    • Comparing Improvement After EAP Counseling for Different Outcomes and Clinical Context Factors in Over 16,000 EAP Cases Worldwide

      Attridge, Mark; DeLapp, Gregory P.; Herlihy, Patricia A.; Ihnes, Pamela; Jacquart, Mike; Lennox, Richard; London, Marina; Servizio, Lou; Sharar, David A., 1961- (2017-09-15)
      The Workplace Outcome Suite (WOS) is an easy-to-administer tool developed by Chestnut Global Partners (CGP) Division of Commercial Science. It uses a short, precise, and easy-to-administer survey that collects EAP specific outcome data both before (pre – at start of the counseling) and after (post – usually after 3 months) EAP services. Thus, the WOS is a measure of change that examines five key aspects of workplace functioning: absenteeism, presenteeism, work engagement, workplace distress, and life satisfaction. The WOS is currently the only publicly available, free instrument that has been psychometrically validated and tested for use in EAP settings. See the 2016 WOS Report for a discussion of how it is administered, basic calculation methods for change over time, and the history of the development of the full 25-item, 9-item and brief 5-item versions.
    • EAP & Work-Life Integration: Research Update and Case Study of Tutoring

      Attridge, Mark (Employee Assistance Professionals Association, 2015-09-30)
      My new column "Integration Insights" published quarterly in the Journal of Employee Assistance in 2015, recognizes that a majority of EAPs now also offer both work-life and wellness services. Collaboration with these other programs offer opportunities for EAPs to provide added business value. Implications are discussed for how program integration and expansion of services enhances the EAP partnership with multiple areas within the organization. Employer case studies are reviewed. This presentation also focuses on employee and family educational support and tutoring services as a new kind of partner program. Findings are presented from a literature review white paper and a survey of 345 employees concerning their child’s use of an online private tutoring service at a Fortune 100 company.
    • EAP Business Case Research: Human Capital Outcome Metrics

      Attridge, Mark (2005-08-10)
      This presentation provides an overview of research that examines the business case and outcomes from employee assistance and work/life services. The presentation has four areas. Part 1. EAP Business Value Model; Part 2. Integration Trends and Models; Part 3.Role of Partners in Driving Value; and Part 4. Measurement Implications
    • EAP Effectiveness and ROI

      Attridge, Mark; Amaral, Thomas M., 1952-; Bjornson, Tom; Goplerud, Eric N.; Herlihy, Patricia A.; McPherson, Tracy L.; Paul, Rich; Routledge, Sandra; Sharar, David A., 1961-; Stephenson, Diane; et al. (Employee Assistance Society of North America, 2009-10)
      This Research Note reviews the results of studies examining the level of user satisfaction, the general effectiveness of EAP core services and the financial return on investment (ROI) for employee assistance programs.
    • EAP Industry Outcomes for Employee Absenteeism and Presenteeism: A Global Research Analysis

      Attridge, Mark (2016-11-02)
      This study standardized the results from a variety of different client- and clinician-rated measures of work absence and work productivity that were collected at pre and post use of the EAP. This super dataset represents the experiences of over 240,000 individual employees users of EAP counseling over 20 years of service delivery from 20 different EAPs in six countries (Australia, Canada, China, Netherlands, South Africa and the United States). The change in absenteeism showed a reduction in work absence from an average of 13.04 hours per case per month before EAP to 6.44 hours during the most recent month at follow-up after use of EAP counseling. For presenteeism, the average employee user of the EAP was functioning at a 64% level of productivity during the month before use of the EAP (on a 0-100% scale; with the typical “healthy” employee at 84%). But this initial rather severe deficit changed to a more normal level of 79% when assessed several months later at follow-up after completing EAP counseling. When using a standard full-time work schedule of 160 hours a month and adjusting the total time at work for absence hours when not at work at Pre and Post periods, this level of unproductivity is equivalent to a total of 52.9 hours of presenteeism before use of the EAP and 32.3 hours after the use of EAP. When absenteeism and presenteeism are combined, the month before use of EAP was 66.0 hours and the month after at follow-up was 39.7. This is a difference in which the typical EAP counseling case experienced 27.25 hours less of lost productive time (i.e., 6.6 fewer hours of missed work (absenteeism) and 20.7 fewer hours of lost productive time while at work (presenteeism) per month after use of the EAP). Note that presenteeism accounts for about 80% of the 27.2 total hours of restored work productivity after EAP counseling. Preventing 3.4 days of lost productivity per month is a substantial outcome considering that the true effect of EAP counseling is several times larger taking into account that the typical course of clinical distress if untreated could extend for a period of several months with varying levels of severity and associated work impairment.
    • Evolution of EAP: Historical Changes Over 30 Years and What Purchasers Want Today From Employee Assistance Vendors

      Attridge, Mark (2018-08-08)
      This slide presentation shares the results of a survey study conducted in 2018. It asked about three issues: 1) How the employee assistance program industry has changed over the past 30 years? - 2) What is important to purchasers of EAP today for buying services in general - and 3) Why employers decide to purchase one EAP over other EAPs? Data is from 155 senior level professionals with average of 23 years experience in EAP field.
    • Future Trends in Organizational Risk Management: Survey Results and Implications for EAPs in Europe

      Attridge, Mark (2017-06-16)
      This presentation examines the research literature to identify trends in evidence-based best practices that employee assistance providers (EAPs) can use to better manage the behavioral health risks of the organizations they serve. There are six themes: 1. Risk Prevalence in Workplace; 2. Risk Cost Burden to Employers; 3. Risk Prevention by EAP; 4. Risk Identification by EAP; 5. Risk Reduction After Use of EAP; and 6. Reduction in Cost Burden (ROI for EAP). Today we will use a presentation format of: a) Key research facts from literature; b) Findings from our 2017 survey of 48 EAPs; and c) Discussion and comments.
    • How to Calculate the ROI for EAP Counseling from Improvements in Work Outcomes: Part 2 of Series with Global Data from the Workplace Outcome Suite© by Morneau Shepell

      Attridge, Mark; Sharar, David A., 1961-; Veder, Barb; Steenstra, Ivan (Employee Assistance Society of North America, 2020)
      This is the second in a three-part series based on the larger Workplace Outcome Suite© (WOS) Annual Report for 2018.1 This popular self- report measurement tool was developed by Chestnut Global Partners in 2010 and is now owned by Morneau Shepell. It is a scientifically validated tool that is offered free to the employee assistance field. This paper presents a revised version of the chapter on the return on investment (ROI) from the 2018 WOS Annual Report. The aim is to provide a detailed example of how to calculate the business value for employee assistance programs (EAPs) based on employee users of counseling services. In this example, 24,363 cases with self-reported work absenteeism hours and work presenteeism ratings were used to estimate the ROI for EAPs. The combination of missed hours from work and lost productivity hours while at work were combined in a single metric of lost productive time (LPT). The improvement in productivity was compared to a no change estimate hypothetical condition which assumes that the same baseline level of deficit in LPT continued over a 3-month period of distress if untreated. This effect was adjusted down to remove the improvement likely to have been caused by naturally occurring influences other than use of EAP counseling (estimated at 23%). Changes in the outcomes revealed that almost five days of productive work time (39 hours) over the 3-month period were restored per case after the use of EAP counseling; worth an estimated $1,731 USD per EAP case. Most of the savings came from reduced work presenteeism rather than work absenteeism (79% vs. 21%, respectively). This outcome was then used in a model with industry averages for the level of annual utilization of EAP counseling (4.9% of all covered employees) and the total cost of the EAP program ($13 per employee per year). The result was an estimated ROI for EAP counseling of $5.19:$1.00.
    • Integration Insights Column #7: Implications of Pricing for EAP Integration and ROI

      Attridge, Mark (Employee Assistance Professionals Association (EAPA), 2017-01-01)
      This article explores the implications of a financial budget devoted to EAP services and how it either promotes or limits, the opportunities for creating effective partnerships and key integration. I summarize key points from my EAP Talks keynote presentation on the Organizational Health Map conceptual model at EAPA’s 2016 World EAP Conference in Chicago.
    • Making the Business Case for EAP and Work/Life

      Attridge, Mark (2004-01-10)
      Presentation for EAP industry professionals. Review of research on the business case for EAP services. Focus on conceptual model developed by Attridge and Amaral with three components of business value: human capital, health claims and organizational.
    • Making the Business Case for Mental Health Treatment: New Research and Resources

      Attridge, Mark (Behavioral Healthcare, 2007-10)
      Text version of brief article in trade magazine on the importance of addressing mental health and addiction problems in the workplace. Review of studies on the need for workplace mental health services, their clinical effectiveness and the ROI of these outcomes for business. Includes a table of the Top 10 Resources for Making the Business Case for Workplace Mental Health Treatment. Also has list of 21 research references.
    • Return on Investment (ROI) Analysis of Employee Assistance Program: Employer Case Study of Piraeus Bank

      Attridge, Mark; Chasapogianni, Evi (2017-05-17)
      Keynote presentation of a successful employer case study and R.O.I. estimation analysis from the implementation of the EAP program in 2016 at Piraeus Bank. Analysis featured actual EAP utilization data, EAP user outcomes and employee and business cost data from the client organization. Results of 4.31:1 (euro) ROI for the overall EAP program, with the majority (67%) of the total cost savings coming from outcome area of restored employee and manager lost productive time at work after use of EAP counseling. Similar ROI results were obtained for years 2014 (4.87:1) and 2015 (5.73:1).
    • Return-on-Investment (ROI) Calculations for Behavioral Health: Development and Application

      Attridge, Mark (2008-03-06)
      This presentation reviews the development and research rationale for a Return-on-Investment (ROI) calculator tool for a web-based application available to the public and targeted to employers. The calculator is designed to estimate the population prevalence, the cost burden to employers for three common health conditions – cardiovascular problems, depression, and alcohol abuse – at a specific organization. The calculator is called the IntelliPrev™ Return on Investment Tool and is available online at www.intellipev.com. When one uses the tool, there are two sections: The Input section and the Results section. The “Input” section asks five inputs about the workplace (number of employees, type of organization, location, industry, and the percent of full-time workers). It also asks about workplace health and productivity climate and estimated levels of program participation. These nine inputs are also used to make a key or grand estimate of overall health and productivity. The tool estimates the “disease burden” associated with the three health conditions and adjusts for the co-occurrence or overlap across the health conditions. The tool estimates the number of employees affected and also the associated costs in three areas: Health care, work productivity and employee absenteeism. The tool also estimates total disease burden in dollars for the company. The second output is an estimated savings from improved outcomes. This second set of estimates is the reduction in disease burden that can be reasonably expected to occur when investing in prevention programs. The third output combines the savings with the disease burden to yield the ROI dollar figure. This figure assumes an employer investment at so much per employee/per year for participating in a program compared to the estimated savings. The process for developing this tool was grounded in personal experience and a comprehensive review of the research literature. The components of the model were selected based on research evidence in the mental health and worksite wellness fields. The economics and human resources literature was also reviewed for logical models and dollar default inputs for the dollar value of workplace outcomes. A unique component of the ROI tool is that both the prevalence rate for these three health problems and the level of improvement to each from interventions are adjusted automatically by the level of overall work climate and organizational health.
    • Trends Report 2017

      Donalson, Todd R.; Mollenhauer, Matthew; Shjerven, Tom; Servizio, Lou (Chestnut Global Partners, 2017-03)
      By many accounts, 2016 was a year of contradictions and extremes. Our politics were certainly contentious and polarizing, as evidenced by Britain’s controversial decision to exit the European Union and the election of a new President in the United States prone to late night TwitterTM feuds. The ongoing civil war in Syria continued to create a humanitarian crisis which, in some countries, increased tensions and discrimination toward immigrants. Added to these tensions were the rise of terrorism in places such as Berlin and Nice, and the violent attacks on Dallas police officers and Orlando night club goers – all of which contributed to rising anxiety levels and safety concerns. By contrast, there were many good news reports that lifted our spirits. West Africa finally became Ebola free, causing the celebration of thousands of families and humanitarian aid workers. Here in the United States the teen birth rate continued its decline of more than 50% since 2007, while the generosity of American employees resulted in a record $373 Billion donated to charities. The unemployment rate of 4.6% was the lowest in almost 10 years, and let us not forget the ‘feel good’ sports stories, including the Chicago Cubs and Cleveland Cavaliers winning world championships for the first time in over a half century. In the world of health care, concerns about the rising costs contrasted with the satisfaction that many felt in seeing the number of uninsured reach record lows. And finally, the death of recording artist Prince due to drug overdose helped shed light on the epidemic of opioid addiction and a growing need for greater integration of physical and mental health. In this year’s CGP Trends Report, the stories featured are also studies in extremes and contradictions. Perhaps the central theme this year is a variation of last year’s theme: the more things change,the more unpredictable they become...and the more resilient we’ll have to become in navigating life’s unexpected turns. Sincerely, Todd Donalson Todd R. Donalson Director of Training and Consultation
    • The Value of Employee Assistance Programs: Updated Report

      Attridge, Mark (Employee Assistance Society of North America (EASNA), 2016-01-01)
      Brief report summarizing research and industry facts on the business value of employee assistance programs (EAP). Four areas of value are examined (see Table of Contents) and support by data from 27 reference citations.