• The Business Value of EAP: A Conceptual Model

      Attridge, Mark; Amaral, Thomas M., 1952-; Bjornson, Tom; Goplerud, Eric N.; Herlihy, Patricia A.; McPherson, Tracy L.; Paul, Rich; Routledge, Sandra; Sharar, David A., 1961-; Stephenson, Diane; et al. (Employee Assistance Society of North America, 2010-05)
      This Research Note describes how to conceptualize the different ways that employee assistance services provide business value to an organization. The model features three major categories or levels of value: Workplace Performance Value – which has cost savings from employee productivity, absence and other human capital areas; Benefit Cost Value – which has cost savings from health care, disability and other employee benefits; and Organizational Value – which has cost savings from risk management and improved organizational development.
    • The Business Value of Employee Assistance: A Review of the Art and Science of ROI (EAPA 2013 Keynote Address)

      Attridge, Mark (2013-10-19)
      Dr. Attridge reviews the science, strategies and future trends influencing the business value of employee assistance program (EAP) services. The talk opens by examining the empirical evidence relevant to the return on investment (ROI) for workplace behavioral health services. Over 1,000 individual research works now exist globally that support various aspects of the business case, including dozens of studies specifically on the outcomes and cost-offset value of EAP services. Next, the themes from this research are used to formulate different strategies for making the business case for EAP. Four conceptual models – called the Primary, Pareto, Productivity, and Partnership approaches to value – are each described and illustrated with data examples. These approaches work best when combined into a more comprehensive model that reflects the mix of services delivered by the EAP. Finally, several "big-picture" trends are identified in the areas of technology tools, outcome measures, healthy workplace culture and technology. These trends offer important new opportunities for increasing the business value of EAPs. Reference List included.
    • Comparing Improvement After EAP Counseling for Different Outcomes and Clinical Context Factors in Over 16,000 EAP Cases Worldwide

      Attridge, Mark; DeLapp, Gregory P.; Herlihy, Patricia A.; Ihnes, Pamela; Jacquart, Mike; Lennox, Richard; London, Marina; Servizio, Lou; Sharar, David A., 1961- (2017-09-15)
      The Workplace Outcome Suite (WOS) is an easy-to-administer tool developed by Chestnut Global Partners (CGP) Division of Commercial Science. It uses a short, precise, and easy-to-administer survey that collects EAP specific outcome data both before (pre – at start of the counseling) and after (post – usually after 3 months) EAP services. Thus, the WOS is a measure of change that examines five key aspects of workplace functioning: absenteeism, presenteeism, work engagement, workplace distress, and life satisfaction. The WOS is currently the only publicly available, free instrument that has been psychometrically validated and tested for use in EAP settings. See the 2016 WOS Report for a discussion of how it is administered, basic calculation methods for change over time, and the history of the development of the full 25-item, 9-item and brief 5-item versions.
    • Do EAPs Work?

      Attridge, Mark (Health Enhancement Research Organization, 2019-02-12)
      General Theme of Conference: Psychological Safety at Work: What Happens When More Voices Are Heard? The presentation reviews empirical studies to answer the following six questions of interest to employers: Q1 = How many employers have EAPs? Q2 = Why are EAPs needed? Q3 = Why do employers buy EAP? Q4 = Who buys EAP? Q5 = Where is the evidence on EAP Effectiveness? Q6 = How do companies get their EAP to be more effective?
    • EAP Business Case Research: Human Capital Outcome Metrics

      Attridge, Mark (2005-08-10)
      This presentation provides an overview of research that examines the business case and outcomes from employee assistance and work/life services. The presentation has four areas. Part 1. EAP Business Value Model; Part 2. Integration Trends and Models; Part 3.Role of Partners in Driving Value; and Part 4. Measurement Implications
    • EAP Effectiveness and ROI

      Attridge, Mark; Amaral, Thomas M., 1952-; Bjornson, Tom; Goplerud, Eric N.; Herlihy, Patricia A.; McPherson, Tracy L.; Paul, Rich; Routledge, Sandra; Sharar, David A., 1961-; Stephenson, Diane; et al. (Employee Assistance Society of North America, 2009-10)
      This Research Note reviews the results of studies examining the level of user satisfaction, the general effectiveness of EAP core services and the financial return on investment (ROI) for employee assistance programs.
    • EAP Impact on Work, Stress and Health: National Data 1999-2002

      Attridge, Mark (2003-03)
      This project brings together applied naturalistic research data to assess the impact of employee assistance program (EAP) services on employee work, stress, and health. Clinical and follow-up self-report survey data from one EAP company (Optum®) is analyzed representing four large national samples (N > 1000 cases randomly selected each year for 1999, 2000, 2001 and 2002). Results show that the majority of EAP clients report improvements in their work productivity and avoided absenteeism, stress, overall health and well-being and daily functioning after use of the service. The findings are found consistently in each year’s data and thus provide replication of results. Financial estimates of workplace outcomes are provided.
    • EAP Industry Outcomes for Employee Absenteeism and Presenteeism: A Global Research Analysis

      Attridge, Mark (2016-11-02)
      This study standardized the results from a variety of different client- and clinician-rated measures of work absence and work productivity that were collected at pre and post use of the EAP. This super dataset represents the experiences of over 240,000 individual employees users of EAP counseling over 20 years of service delivery from 20 different EAPs in six countries (Australia, Canada, China, Netherlands, South Africa and the United States). The change in absenteeism showed a reduction in work absence from an average of 13.04 hours per case per month before EAP to 6.44 hours during the most recent month at follow-up after use of EAP counseling. For presenteeism, the average employee user of the EAP was functioning at a 64% level of productivity during the month before use of the EAP (on a 0-100% scale; with the typical “healthy” employee at 84%). But this initial rather severe deficit changed to a more normal level of 79% when assessed several months later at follow-up after completing EAP counseling. When using a standard full-time work schedule of 160 hours a month and adjusting the total time at work for absence hours when not at work at Pre and Post periods, this level of unproductivity is equivalent to a total of 52.9 hours of presenteeism before use of the EAP and 32.3 hours after the use of EAP. When absenteeism and presenteeism are combined, the month before use of EAP was 66.0 hours and the month after at follow-up was 39.7. This is a difference in which the typical EAP counseling case experienced 27.25 hours less of lost productive time (i.e., 6.6 fewer hours of missed work (absenteeism) and 20.7 fewer hours of lost productive time while at work (presenteeism) per month after use of the EAP). Note that presenteeism accounts for about 80% of the 27.2 total hours of restored work productivity after EAP counseling. Preventing 3.4 days of lost productivity per month is a substantial outcome considering that the true effect of EAP counseling is several times larger taking into account that the typical course of clinical distress if untreated could extend for a period of several months with varying levels of severity and associated work impairment.
    • EAP Outcomes, Critical Incident Effectiveness Measures and EAP Product Extension

      DeLapp, Gregory P.; Sharar, David A., 1961-; Attridge, Mark; Veder, Barb; Antonissen, Dirk (2018-10-12)
      KEYNOTE ADDRESS. During this moderated panel-session we will examine the value of our industry working towards a set of globally standardized workplace evaluation tools, including the Workplace Outcome Suite (WOS), the recently validated version of the WOS for workplace critical incident response - The Critical Incident Outcome Measure (CIOM), and a new organizational level measure of the effectiveness of EAP supports to workplace - the Short Inventory of Stress and Well-being tool from Europe. Additionally, this session will address the rationales for designing and incorporating these tools into your books of business.
    • EAP Works: Global Results from 24,363 Counseling Cases with Pre-Post Data on the Workplace Outcome Suite (WOS)

      Attridge, Mark; Sharar, David A., 1961-; DeLapp, Gregory P.; Veder, Barbara (Institute for Health and Productivity Management, 2018-12)
      The Workplace Outcome Suite© (WOS) is a self-report instrument designed to evaluate the effectiveness of employee assistance program (EAP) counseling services from the perspective of the employee user of the service. More than 30 EAPs collected longitudinal data on all versions of the WOS from 2010 to 2018 and voluntarily submitted their raw data to Chestnut Global Partners for analysis. The 24,363 employees in this aggregated sample represent 26different countries, but most of the cases were from the United States (79%) and China (15%). The typical EAP case in this data set was a female, age 38, and was a self-referral into an external vendor of EAP services seeking help for a mental health concern. Outcomes were collected at the start of counseling and again approximately three months later. Evidence of the psychometric validity and test-retest reliability for all five WOS measures was found in correlational tests. Other tests of the change in outcomes from before to after use of EAP counseling found large effects on work presenteeism and life satisfaction (ηp2= .24 and .19), a medium-size effect on work absenteeism (ηp2= .13), and small effects on both workplace distress and work engagement (ηp2= .05 and .04). Although most EAP cases had no absence from work either before counseling or at follow-up (58% and 78%, respectively), the average amount per case per month of missed work due to the personal concern was reduced from 7.4 hours before to 3.9 hours after use of the EAP. Weak findings on moderator tests determined EAP counseling was effective to a similar degree on WOS outcomes across contextual factors of client age, sex, country, referral type, clinical concerns, industry of the employer, and delivery models for providing employee assistance counseling (i.e., external vendors, internal staff programs and hybrid models). As an alternative to the fill-in-the-blank response format requiring a specific number of hours, a modified version of the work absenteeism single item is offered that has a 5-point scale with normative levels of absence hours obtained from the Pre EAP use global data that define each of the 1-5 rating options. More details and related findings are presented in the Workplace Outcomes Suite 2018 Annual Report from Chestnut Global Partners.
    • EAPs correlate to positive workplace outcomes

      Sharar, David A., 1961-; DeLapp, Gregory P. (Employee Assistance Advisor, 2016-12-20)
      Study using EAP benchmarking tool demonstrates efficacy of programs/services in reducing absenteeism, presenteeism, workplace distress, increased engagement and job satisfaction.
    • Employee Assistance Program Outcomes Similar for Counselor (Phone and In-person) and Legal/Finance Consultation Clients

      Attridge, Mark (2002-06)
      Outcomes of employee assistance program (EAP) clients were compared between three commonly used services: (1) telephone counselors, (2) in-person counselors and (3) legal/financial consultants. Tests of follow-up survey data (N = 3,200) from a national EAP provider (Optum) showed high levels of health and workplace outcomes for all three study groups. Measures included the EAP users's self-reported levels of following the care plan, clinical effectiveness, client satisfaction, and improvements in stress, health and well-being, work productivity and work absence.
    • Follow the Data: New Study Correlates EAP to Positive Workplace Outcomes

      Sharar, David A., 1961-; DeLapp, Gregory P. (2016-12-20)
      Study using EAP Benchmarking tool demonstrates efficacy of programs/services in reducing absenteeism, presenteeism, workplace distress, increased engagement and job satisfaction
    • Integration Insights Column #7: Implications of Pricing for EAP Integration and ROI

      Attridge, Mark (Employee Assistance Professionals Association (EAPA), 2017-01-01)
      This article explores the implications of a financial budget devoted to EAP services and how it either promotes or limits, the opportunities for creating effective partnerships and key integration. I summarize key points from my EAP Talks keynote presentation on the Organizational Health Map conceptual model at EAPA’s 2016 World EAP Conference in Chicago.
    • Longitudinal Outcomes of the Face to Face EAP Counseling Services in Greece on Workplace Outcome Suite (WOS): Hellas EAP 2016

      Mazouropoulou, Christina; Attridge, Mark (2017-05-17)
      This presentation shares the research results of employee users of face-to-face counseling provided by Hellas EAP in Greece during the year 2016. Data from 110 cases was compared at before counseling and after a longitudinal follow-up (about 3 months). The five components of the Workplace Outcome Suite (WOS) for EAPs were analyzed for change over time. Significant improvements were obtained on all five outcomes. The greatest degree of change was found for employee presenteeism. These results for the EAP in Greece are comparable with other worldwide benchmark data for the WOS. When the average improvements in employee absenteeism hours and level of work presenteeism were combined, the amount of lost productive time per month per employee was reduced from 8.9 days to 4.4 days. A new analysis method examined the change in the percentage of cases who were at the "Problem Level" on each of the WOS measures. All five measures also showed significant reductions in the number of cases at a problem level from before to after use of the counseling.
    • Making the Business Case for EAP and Work/Life

      Attridge, Mark (2004-01-10)
      Presentation for EAP industry professionals. Review of research on the business case for EAP services. Focus on conceptual model developed by Attridge and Amaral with three components of business value: human capital, health claims and organizational.
    • Measuring Coaching Effectiveness: Validation of the Workplace Outcome Suite for Coaching

      Lennox, Richard; Sharar, David A., 1961-; Miller, Francine J. (Institute for Health and Productivity Management, 2018-12)
      Chestnut Global Partners developed the coaching version of the Workplace Outcome Suite (WOS) to measure the effectiveness of coaching interventions in helping to address a range of workplace issues. For this purpose the original 25-item version of the WOS, developed in 2009, was slightly modified to provide outcome information on the coaching process. While the changes were modest, there was some concern that they might adversely affect the psychometric characteristics of the 25-item tool compromising its validity and reliability. Prudence requires the coaching version of the WOS be evaluated to assure results are equivalent with those of the original WOS. Data from 309 clients, provided with disease management coaching services for depression and diabetes, were analyzed. Various methods, including reliability analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and correlational studies, were included in the study. The results of these analyses showed that the coaching tool performed slightly better than the original WOS. The instrument was shown to be extremely reliable, particularly for a short scale. The analysis revealed that the 25-item coaching version of the WOS can be used to test the efficacy and effectiveness of a coaching program without concern for significant measurement error. Results suggest that psychometric studies of the original 25-item WOS can also reflect clinical change from the workplace health programs coaching version even with samples as small as 50 clients.
    • Outcomes of Educational Interventions for Employee Stress: A Longitudinal Controlled Study

      Attridge, Mark; Keiser, Kari; Lapp, Joni (1999-08-01)
      This two-group three-wave longitudinal study assessed the impact of health promotion interventions on stress and work performance of employees. Survey data were collected during a one year period from staff at public high schools in Minnesota (total N = 208). One school was the treatment site, which received monthly psychosocial educational interventions from the EAP, and two other schools were control sites. Statistical tests demonstrated that the delivery of multiple, brief, educational interventions appeared to have a small but positive impact on reducing overall stress level, increasing utilization of employee assistance program counseling services, and improving job performance and absenteeism.
    • Outcomes of Telephonic Employee Assistance Services in a National Sample: A Replication Study

      Attridge, Mark (2001-06-12)
      This applied naturalistic study assessed the outcomes of employee assistance program (EAP) services. Follow-up survey data was collected from a large national random sample (N=1,251). Results showed that over two-thirds of employees reported improvements in their stress, well-being, daily functioning, work productivity and absenteeism after use of the service. These findings replicate an earlier study of the same EAP provider (Riedel & Attridge, 2000).
    • Personal and Work Outcomes of Employee Assistance Services

      Attridge, Mark (2001-08)
      This applied naturalistic study assessed the outcomes of employee assistance program (EAP) services delivered primarily by telephone. Follow-up survey data was analyzed from a large national sample (N = 1,050) in year 1999. Results showed that over two-thirds of employees reported improvements in their stress, well-being, daily functioning, and work performance after use of the service.