The University of Maryland School of Social Work – the only social work program with a dedicated Employee Assistance (EA) curriculum as part of the larger MSW program – hosts the Employee Assistance Digital Archive.

The Employee Assistance Digital Archive is a free, publicly accessible site where EA professionals can post original works, historical documents or other related papers. The intent of the Archive is to preserve important historical documents in the EA field as well as to provide a national depository for all significant articles in the field.

Please visit our Employee Assistance Digital Archive Homepage to learn about how you can submit and use the Archive.

Recent Submissions

  • Employee Assistance Program Counseling Improves Clinical and Work Outcomes: Longitudinal Results from CuraLinc Healthcare 2017-2022 in United States

    Attridge, Mark; Pawlowski, David; Fogarty, Sean (2022-08-06)
    This paper presents empirical findings from a multi-year applied naturalistic study that focused on changes in clinical and work outcomes after using an employee assistance program in the United States. Self-report outcomes assessed with standardized measures were collected at the start of counseling from 33,683 employees during the normal course of business at CuraLinc Healthcare during 2017 to June 2022. A total of 5,159 employees had valid Pre and 30-day Post use data on one or more of the outcomes. Tests within each outcome sample found significant improvement after counseling (most had a 5 or 6 session model). Among the 487 cases using the EAP for a depression issue, the average severity level of depression symptoms (PHQ-9) was reduced by 59%. Among the subset of these cases at-risk for clinical depression disorder (n = 292), 89% had a reliable clinical improvement in severity. Among the 440 cases using the EAP for an alcohol issue, the average severity level of alcohol misuse (AUDIT-10) was reduced by 67%. Among subset of these cases at-risk for alcohol misuse disorder (n = 288), 73% had a reliable clinical improvement in severity. Across all cases with absence data (n = 3,732), the average hours of work absence in the past month per employee (Workplace Outcome Suite) was reduced by 80%, changing from 8.9 hours at Pre to 1.8 hours at Post. At the start of counseling, 35% of these cases were classified as having an absence problem (i.e., missing more work than a typical healthy employee), but at Post only 7% had a work absence problem. Across all cases with productivity data (n = 3,845), the level of work productivity (Stanford Presenteeism Scale) improved by 35%. At the start of counseling, 34% of cases were initially classified as having a problem with work productivity (i.e., low performance and lack of focus), but at Post this rate was reduced to just 5% of cases. All primary results for each outcome were large size statistical effects. Moderator tests indicated the improvement in each outcome was generally consistent across different sub-groups of employees based on client age, sex, clinical use characteristics and other study context factors. Some moderator findings were identified for clinical issue, referral type (self or manager) and client sex having slightly different profiles on certain outcomes. Comparisons with past research, study design limitations, and best practices in conducting applied research on workplace mental health are discussed.
  • Gender at Work: Comparing Employee Mental Health in Masculine and Feminine Workplace Cultures

    Attridge, Mark; Lashewicz, Bonnie (2021-06-09)
    Purpose of Study: Draw out interconnected aspects of individual employee experiences amidst their “social locations” in relationships and families and also the workplace practices and policies. We collected and analyzed views and experiences about work, gender and mental health from employees in one feminized workplace and one masculinized workplace. Mixed methods research study: Surveys (n=41 and n=84) and interviews (n=30) with participants from two workplaces in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Site 1: A feminized workplace in the “disability services” sector. Provides supports for disabled children and their families, with nearly 200 employees who provide residential, vocational, educational, early intervention and therapy programs. All supervisors were women. Site 2: A masculinized workplace in the “energy” sector. Has 400+ employees. A producer of light and medium oil as a publicly-traded company. Has a bar on site that serves alcohol to employees. A mix of both women and men as supervisors. Target audience: Employers. Goal: How to understand and better resource employees concerning gender and mental health issues in the workplace. Key results: Work Culture is a key dynamic for explaining gender differences and how they influence (good and bad) employees of both sexes in the workplace. Work Culture is thus where to intervene for change – to greater effect than treating consequences of gender discrimination and stigma for mental health and addictions at the individual level.
  • Employee Assistance Programs in the United States: Market Update, Research Outcomes, & Techno Trends

    Attridge, Mark (2022-06-09)
    This presentation features research-based trends in the employee assistance program (EAP) industry in the United States. Recent data on market size, the boom in new technology-based mental health support provider companies, and research on the outcomes of EAP counseling are examined. Recommendations are given for how to better understand and evaluate the wide range of EAP and other workplace mental health support service offerings now available as employee benefits.
  • Resilience Strategies for Law Enforcement Families

    International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP), 2022
    This series of resources is designed to support agencies and departments to address officer mental health and wellness concerns through unique and practical resilience strategies, customized to roles within the field of public safety.
  • International Employee Assistance Digital Archive - Poster

    Herlihy, Patricia A.; Frey, Jodi J (2022-06)
    This is a Poster designed for the Work Family Research Network Conference in NYC in mid June 2022. The poster is a brief display of five current pieces in the International Employee Assistance Digital Archive exhibiting collaboration with Boston College Center on Work and Family, Ohio State, MeQuilibrium, and then a set of slides from a Virtual EAPA Presentation on Law Enforcement and a tip sheet on talking to children about the war in Ukraine. The intent of this poster is to introduce the Work Family Research community to this FREE resource.
  • Police stressors and health: a state-of-the-art review

    Violanti, John M.; Charles, Luenda E.; McCanlies, Erin; Hartley, Tara A.; Baughman, Penelope; Andrew, Michael E.; Fekedulegn, Desta; Ma, Claudia C.; Mnatsakanova, Anna; Burchfiel, Cecil M. (Oxford Academic, 2017-11)
    Purpose –—The purpose of this paper is to provide a state-of-the-art review on the topic of police stressors and associated health outcomes. Recent empirical research is reviewed in the areas of workplace stress, shift work, traumatic stress, and health. The authors provide a comprehensive table outlining occupational exposures and related health effects in police officers. Design/methodology/approach –—A review of recent empirical research on police stress and untoward psychological and physiological health outcomes in police officers. Findings –—The results offer a conceptual idea of the empirical associations between stressful workplace exposures and their impact on the mental and physical well-being of officers. Research limitations/implications –—A key limitation observed in prior research is the cross-sectional study design; however, this serves as a motivator for researchers to explore these associations utilizing a longitudinal study design that will help determine causality. Originality/value –—This review provides empirical evidence of both mental and physical outcomes associated with police stress and the processes involved in both. Research findings presented in this paper are based on sound psychological and medical evidence among police officers.
  • Mental Health Mondays: Perspectives, Ltd

    Frey, Jodi J; Dyme, Bernard S.; Schenkelberg, Doug; Beyer, Cal (Perspectives, Ltd, 2022-05)
    During Mental Health Awareness Month in May of 2022, Perspectives Ltd launched a Mental Health Mondays video series. Four guest experts provided actionable advice and strategies for leaders prioritizing their employee's and community's mental health. The four videos are available here.
  • The San Francisco Story: All It Just Takes is Two People Talking - Creating a Vision for the Workplace

    San Francisco Chapter of EAPA; Webb, Mike (San Francisco EAPA Chapter, 1998-01-01)
    This video was completed in 1998 by the San Francisco EAPA Chapter with the plan to interview the initial managers of several Employee Assistance Programs (EAPs) with the then-current managers of the same programs when possible. Interviews were conducted with managers from the following EAPs: Chevron, PG&E, and Wells Fargo. The initial manager of the Bank of America EAP and the then head of the Levi Strauss program were also interviewed. George Cobbs, CEAP was interviewed. Cobbs was the President of EAPA, Inc. from 1994-1996 and was the head of the Member Assistance Program for the International Longshoreman Warehouse Union / Pacific Maritime Association in San Francisco. These Union programs were and continue to be an important resource for helping employees.
  • Mental Health, Substance Use, and Suicidal Ideation During the COVID-19 Pandemic — United States, June 24–30, 2020

    Czeisler, Mark É.; Lane, Rashon I.; Petrosky, Emiko; Wiley, Joshua F.; Christensen, Aleta; Njai, Rashid; Weaver, Matthew D.; Robbins, Rebecca Ph.D.; Facer-Childs, Elise R.; Barger, Laura K.; et al. (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2020-08-14)
    The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has been associated with mental health challenges related to the morbidity and mortality caused by the disease and to mitigation activities, including the impact of physical distancing and stay-at-home orders. Symptoms of anxiety disorder and depressive disorder increased considerably in the United States during April–June of 2020, compared with the same period in 2019 . To assess mental health, substance use, and suicidal ideation during the pandemic, representative panel surveys were conducted among adults aged ≥18 years across the United States during June 24–30, 2020. Overall, 40.9% of respondents reported at least one adverse mental or behavioral health con- dition, including symptoms of anxiety disorder or depressive disorder (30.9%), symptoms of a trauma- and stressor-related disorder (TSRD) related to the pandemic† (26.3%), and having started or increased substance use to cope with stress or emotions related to COVID-19 (13.3%). The percentage of respondents who reported having seriously considered suicide in the 30 days before completing the survey (10.7%) was significantly higher among respondents aged 18–24 years (25.5%), minority racial/ ethnic groups (Hispanic respondents [18.6%], non-Hispanic black [black] respondents [15.1%]), self-reported unpaid care- givers for adults§ (30.7%), and essential workers (21.7%). Community-level intervention and prevention efforts, including health communication strategies, designed to reach these groups could help address various mental health conditions associated with the COVID-19 pandemic.
  • The critical pediatric behavioral health care your employees need: Employee wellbeing and focus starts at home

    Brightline, 2022
    This infographic addresses the issues of pediatric behavioral health needs and outlines ways Brightline can provide personalized support to kids, teens, and caregivers.
  • Expanded Paid Parental Leave: Measuring the Impact of Leave on Work & Family

    Harrington, Brad; Lawler McHugh, Tina; Fraone, Jennifer Sabatini (Boston College Center for Work & Family, 2019)
    This report compares the leave experiences and attitudes of over 1,200 new mothers and fathers, who were eligible for at least 6 weeks of gender-neutral, paid parental leave. It assesses employees' use of leave and explores how taking leave impacts caregiving, career progression, and the ability to combine work and family successfully.
  • Steps to Take When an Employee Reports Sexual Harassment

    EAPA South Africa (EAPA South Africa, 2019-09-13)
    This article presents statistics on sexual harassment in the workplace in South Africa and outlines the following topics surrounding employee reports of sexual harassment: Know the process; Avoid not taking reports seriously; Investigation and disciplinary action; and Resolution through informal or formal procedures.
  • Medications for Opioid Overdose, Withdrawal, & Addiction

    National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), 2022-01-14
    The National Institute on Drug Abuse supports research to develop new medicines and delivery systems to treat opioid use disorder and other substance use disorders as well as other complications of substance use (Including withdrawal and overdose), to help people choose treatments that are right for them.
  • The Efficacy of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: A Review of Meta-analyses

    Hofmann, Stefan G.; Asnaani, Anu; Vonk, Imke J.J.; Sawyer, Alice T.; Fang, Angela (2012-10-01)
    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) refers to a popular therapeutic approach that has been applied to a variety of problems. The goal of this review was to provide a comprehensive survey of meta- analyses examining the efficacy of CBT. We identified 269 meta-analytic studies and reviewed of those a representative sample of 106 meta-analyses examining CBT for the following problems: substance use disorder, schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders, depression and dysthymia, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders, somatoform disorders, eating disorders, insomnia, personality disorders, anger and aggression, criminal behaviors, general stress, distress due to general medical conditions, chronic pain and fatigue, distress related to pregnancy complications and female hormonal conditions. Additional meta-analytic reviews examined the efficacy of CBT for various problems in children and elderly adults. The strongest support exists for CBT of anxiety disorders, somatoform disorders, bulimia, anger control problems, and general stress. Eleven studies compared response rates between CBT and other treatments or control conditions. CBT showed higher response rates than the comparison conditions in 7 of these reviews and only one review reported that CBT had lower response rates than comparison treatments. In general, the evidence- base of CBT is very strong. However, additional research is needed to examine the efficacy of CBT for randomized-controlled studies. Moreover, except for children and elderly populations, no meta-analytic studies of CBT have been reported on specific subgroups, such as ethnic minorities and low income samples.
  • Rethinking Drinking: Alcohol and your health

    National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), 2021-12
    Rethinking Drinking is designed for U.S. adults who drink alcohol. It provides evidence-based information about alcohol and health along with tips, tools, and resources for those who want to cut down on or quit drinking. The first part of this booklet, How Much Is Too Much?, answers many questions about alcohol use. The second part, Thinking About a Change?, offers tips, tools, and resources for people who choose to cut down or quit
  • The "Truth" about EAPs and Human Resources

    Buon, Tony (Psychologist) (2022-05-12)
    In business we are told to “understand your customer”; for the EAP Professional this means you need to understand the main purchasers and managers of EAPs, that is Human Resource (HR) Professionals. However, many EAP professionals have only a limited understanding of the philosophies and strategies of HRM. In this Webinar, you will learn about the essentials of modern HRM and the relationship with Employee Assistance.
  • Talking to Children about the Shooting

    The National Child Traumatic Stress Network; Riverside Trauma Center (2014)
  • The Facts Don’t Lie: Statistical Truths about the Business Value of EAPs

    Attridge, Mark (Employee Assistance Professionals Association (EAPA), 2022-04)
    This article presents succinct and data-driven facts that answer critical questions about the business value of EAPs, and it offers an ROI case study with $2,200 USD savings per each counseling case from avoided further workplace productivity losses in work presenteeism and absenteeism.
  • Update on EAP Market and Research

    Attridge, Mark (Workplace Collaborative, 2022-04-29)
    Overview of current trends in the business market for employee assistance programs in the United States. Includes review of several applied research projects on EAP outcomes.
  • Key Factors in Business Continuity: Mental Health Impacts

    Attridge, Mark (Make It Safe, 2020-10-29)
    Part 1: Current state of mental distress for Canadian Workers in COVID-19 Pandemic Context, with highlights of national survey trend data and 10 recommendations for businesses. Part 2: Research-based best practices for more effective use of Employee and Family Assistance Programs and technology-based tools for mental health.

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