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dc.contributor.authorSchledwitz, Alyssa
dc.contributor.authorSundel, Margaret H.
dc.contributor.authorAlizadeh, Madeline
dc.contributor.authorHu, Shien
dc.contributor.authorXie, Guofeng
dc.contributor.authorRaufman, Jean-Pierre
dc.descriptionThe article processing charges (APC) for this open access article were partially funded by the Health Sciences and Human Services Library's Open Access Publishing Fund for Early-Career Researchers.en_US
dc.description.abstractCancers arising from gastrointestinal epithelial cells are common, aggressive, and difficult to treat. Progress in this area resulted from recognizing that the biological behavior of these cancers is highly dependent on bioactive molecules released by neurocrine, paracrine, and autocrine mechanisms within the tumor microenvironment. For many decades after its discovery as a neurotransmitter, acetylcholine was thought to be synthesized and released uniquely from neurons and considered the sole physiological ligand for muscarinic receptor subtypes, which were believed to have similar or redundant actions. In the intervening years, we learned this former dogma is not tenable. (1) Acetylcholine is not produced and released only by neurons. The cellular machinery required to synthesize and release acetylcholine is present in immune, cancer, and other cells, as well as in lower organisms (e.g., bacteria) that inhabit the gut. (2) Acetylcholine is not the sole physiological activator of muscarinic receptors. For example, selected bile acids can modulate muscarinic receptor function. (3) Muscarinic receptor subtypes anticipated to have overlapping functions based on similar G protein coupling and downstream signaling may have unexpectedly diverse actions. Here, we review the relevant research findings supporting these conclusions and discuss how the complexity of muscarinic receptor biology impacts health and disease, focusing on their role in the initiation and progression of gastric, pancreatic, and colon cancers.en_US
dc.relation.ispartofInternational Journal of Molecular Sciencesen_US
dc.rightsAttribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International*
dc.subjectcolorectal canceren_US
dc.subject.lcshColon (Anatomy)--Canceren_US
dc.subject.meshReceptors, Muscarinicen_US
dc.titleDifferential Actions of Muscarinic Receptor Subtypes in Gastric, Pancreatic, and Colon Canceren_US

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Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International