Spontaneous Oropharyngeal Hemorrhage Complicated by Cirrhosis, Resulting in Hemorrhagic Shock
JournalAmerican Journal of Case Reports
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AbstractObjecttive Background: Spontaneous oropharyngeal hemorrhage is rare and is often associated with other predisposing factors. This can result in hemodynamic instability in the presence of other bleeding sources. It is oftentimes difficult to diagnose due to its limitations to visual inspection of the oropharyngeal structures. It is commonly mistaken for hemoptysis or hematemesis upon initial evaluation. Trauma, infection, pulmonary pathologies (ie, lung cancer or tuberculosis), gastrointestinal pathologies (ie, esophageal/gastric varices, Mallory-Weiss tears, esophagitis), coagulopathies, medications, and prolonged intubation have been shown to increase the risk of oropharyngeal hemorrhage. Case Report: A 54-year-old man with a medical history of alcohol use disorder, liver cirrhosis, portal hypertension, and gastric varices presented with altered mental status. He was subsequently intubated for airway protection. Bleeding from the oropharynx was later found. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) and bronchoscopy were unrevealing. Computed tomography angiography (CTA) of the head and neck revealed active bleeding of the right posterior pharyngeal artery, which was emergently embolized. Over the next few days, he continued to bleed from the oropharynx and became hemodynamically unstable. CTA abdomen showed bleeding from gastric varices and large-volume hemoperitoneum with multiple sources of active bleeding from the liver, duodenum, and jejunum. Conclusions: We present a rare case of spontaneous oropharyngeal hemorrhage and gastric variceal bleeding resulting in hemorrhagic shock in a cirrhotic patient with multiple predisposing factors. If a patient presents with spontaneous oropharyngeal hemorrhage, clinicians should consider bleeding from the oropharynx if EGD and bronchoscopy are unrevealing. Thus, an emergent CTA of the head and neck should be strongly considered to further evaluate a potential source of active bleeding, as delayed diagnosis can be life-threatening.
DescriptionThe article processing charges (APC) for this open access article were partially funded by the Health Sciences and Human Services Library's Open Access Publishing Fund for Early-Career Researchers.
Rights/TermsAttribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International
Liver Cirrhosis, Alcoholic
Esophageal and Gastric Varices
Identifier to cite or link to this itemhttp://hdl.handle.net/10713/21002
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Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International