Intramuscular Electrical Stimulation to Trigger Points: Insights into Mechanisms and Clinical Applications-A Scoping Review.
JournalJournal of clinical medicine
MetadataShow full item record
AbstractIntramuscular electrical stimulation (IMES) is a modality used by clinicians to treat myofascial pain. Recent studies have shown positive results for the use of IMES on pain outcomes, yet studies investigating the potential mechanisms of IMES directly to trigger points (TrPs) are lacking. We performed a scoping review of the literature to summarize the current evidence from human and animal studies on the mechanisms of IMES to the TrP location, and to identify gaps in the existing literature. Electronic literature searches were conducted across five databases from inception to 15 August 2022, including PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED), Scopus and Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials. Four studies met our full criteria for inclusion in this review. Three studies assessed the effects of IMES to TrPs on human subjects with MPS, and only one study used an animal model with experimentally generated TrPs. Based on the results of the included studies, IMES within a TrP region was reported to normalize muscle blood flow, decrease endplate noise of the TrP and elicit antinociceptive effects, at least partially, through engaging supraspinal descending pain inhibitory systems. At present, no clinical implications can be determined on the use of IMES to TrPs due to the limited amount and quality of the available evidence. Further studies investigating the clinical effectiveness and also underlying mechanisms of IMES to TrPs are clearly needed.
Identifier to cite or link to this itemhttp://hdl.handle.net/10713/20101
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