Use of Transcarotid Artery Revascularization, Transfemoral Carotid Artery Stenting, and Carotid Endarterectomy in the US from 2015 to 2019
AuthorStonko, David P.
Holscher, Courtenay M.
Hicks, Caitlin W.
JournalJAMA Network Open
MetadataShow full item record
AbstractImportance: A transcarotid artery revascularization (TCAR) device was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in 2015 for carotid revascularization in patients at high risk for stroke, cranial nerve injury, or major cardiac event. It is unclear how the introduction of TCAR has changed the use of carotid endarterectomy (CEA) and transfemoral carotid artery stenting (TFCAS). Objective: To quantify the temporal changes in the operative approach to carotid revascularization (CEA vs TFCAS vs TCAR), and to identify patient and disease characteristics commonly associated with each approach. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study obtained data from the Vascular Quality Initiative database from January 1, 2015, to December 31, 2019. Patients with carotid artery stenosis who underwent CEA, TFCAS, or TCAR were included. Data were analyzed from January to April 2022. Exposures: Month and year of surgery as well as patient risk status. Main Outcomes and Measures: Number and proportion of carotid revascularization procedures by operative approach. Results: A total of 108676 patients (mean [SD] age 56.6 [12.5] years; 66 684 men [61.4%]) were included in the analysis. The most common operative approach overall was CEA (n = 81508 [75.0%]), followed by TFCAS (n = 15578 [14.3%]) and TCAR (n = 11590 [10.7%]). The number of procedures increased over the study period (16754 in 2015 vs 27269 in 2019; P <.001). In 2015, CEA was used in 84.9% of all cases, followed by TFCAS (14.4%) and TCAR (0.8%). In 2019, CEA was used in 64.8% of cases, followed by TCAR (21.9%) and TFCAS (13.3%). The proportional use of CEA decreased by 5.0% (95% CI, -7.4% to -2.6%) per year, and TCAR use increased by 5.3% (95% CI, 2.3%-8.3%) per year. Among patients at high risk, the change was greater: CEA use decreased by 7.8% (95% CI, -11.9% to -3.8%) per year, TFCAS decreased by 4.8% (95% CI, -9.5% to -0.14%) per year, and TCAR increased by 12.6% (95% CI, 7.1%-18.1%) per year. Multinomial logistic regression showed that patient risk status was the most important characteristic associated with TCAR compared with CEA (relative risk ratio, 36.10; 95% CI, 29.24-44.66; P <.001) and TFCAS (relative risk ratio, 14.10; 95% CI, 11.86-16.66; P <.001). Linear regression revealed no association between year of surgery and in-hospital myocardial infarction, stroke, or mortality. Conclusions and Relevance: Results of this study indicate that TCAR has become the dominant carotid revascularization approach, surpassing TFCAS and CEA in patients at high risk for stroke, cranial nerve injury, or cardiovascular events. Patient high-risk status was the main characteristic associated with a stenting approach, highlighting the perceived importance of carotid stenting therapies in this patient population.
SponsorsNational Institutes of Health
Identifier to cite or link to this itemhttp://hdl.handle.net/10713/19910