The role of hypertrophic chondrocytes in regulation of the cartilage-to-bone transition in fracture healing
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AbstractEndochondral bone formation is an important pathway in fracture healing, involving the formation of a cartilaginous soft callus and the process of cartilage-to-bone transition. Failure or delay in the cartilage-to-bone transition causes an impaired bony union such as nonunion or delayed union. During the healing process, multiple types of cells including chondrocytes, osteoprogenitors, osteoblasts, and endothelial cells coexist in the callus, and inevitably crosstalk with each other. Hypertrophic chondrocytes located between soft cartilaginous callus and bony hard callus mediate the crosstalk regulating cell-matrix degradation, vascularization, osteoclast recruitment, and osteoblast differentiation in autocrine and paracrine manners. Furthermore, hypertrophic chondrocytes can become osteoprogenitors and osteoblasts, and directly contribute to woven bone formation. In this review, we focus on the roles of hypertrophic chondrocytes in fracture healing and dissect the intermingled crosstalk in fracture callus during the cartilage-to-bone transition.
SponsorsNational Institutes of Health
Identifier to cite or link to this itemhttp://hdl.handle.net/10713/19805