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dc.contributor.authorGoerlich, Corbin
dc.date.accessioned2022-09-15T13:19:56Z
dc.date.available2022-09-15T13:19:56Z
dc.date.issued2022
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10713/19803
dc.descriptionUniversity of Maryland, Baltimore. Molecular Microbiology and Immunology. Ph.D. 2022en_US
dc.description.abstractPatients with end-stage heart failure requiring heart transplantation die simply because allografts are in short supply. Cardiac xenotransplantation from genetically-modified pig source animals has been proposed to bridge the gap between supply and demand. However, there are two predominant barriers to clinical translation and are poorly understood. The first, is a type of primary graft dysfunction, termed perioperative cardiac xenograft dysfunction (PCXD), which causes failure of the xenograft within 48 hours after transplantation. The second, post-transplantation xenograft growth, which causes a life-limiting diastolic heart failure within the first month after transplantation. We demonstrate that PCXD can be overcome with cardiac preservation techniques that minimize ischemia, either with blood-based cardioplegia induction or non-ischemic continuous preservation (NICP). In a heterotopic PCXD model, we further demonstrate that PCXD is likely a phenomenon rooted in xenograft dysfunction resulting from activation of innate immunity within the xenograft. While further studies need to be done, we demonstrate evidence that PCXD is augmented by the synergistic inflammatory effects of both cardiopulmonary bypass and cross-species transplantation. We also provide evidence that polymorphisms from TLR4 of S. scrofa (swine) compared to H. sapiens, may explain a possible target for the unique inflammatory signaling, that results in xenograft dysfunction after cardiac xenotransplantation. We also demonstrate that post-transplantation xenograft growth is multifactorial, but can be limited by growth hormone receptor knockout donors, along with genetic modifications that reduce immunogenicity of the xenograft. This growth, within 6 months after transplantation, is not a result of physiologic mismatch or cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Therefore, recipients do not need to be treated for tachycardia and hypertension as previously thought. Lastly, we demonstrate the clinical translation of cardiac xenotransplantation by applying knowledge and expertise obtained from these studies. Expanded access (“compassionate use”) FDA authorization was based on demonstration of principle from our preclinical model. An ECMO-dependent patient without other therapeutic options was transplanted a genetically-modified cardiac xenograft, with 10-gene edits, combined with non-ischemic cardiac preservation and anti-CD40 monoclonal antibody-based immunosuppression. The patient was able to successfully wean from ECMO, participate in active rehabilitation and survived 60 days after transplantation without evidence of rejection.en_US
dc.language.isoen_USen_US
dc.subjectRevivicoren_US
dc.subjectco-stimulationen_US
dc.subject.meshGene Editingen_US
dc.subject.meshTransplantation, Heterologousen_US
dc.subject.meshHearten_US
dc.titleThe Clinical Translation of Cardiac Xenotransplantationen_US
dc.typedissertationen_US
dc.date.updated2022-09-06T19:12:36Z
dc.language.rfc3066en
dc.contributor.advisorMohiuddin, Muhammad M.
dc.contributor.advisorSingh, Nevil


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