Overall and Gender-Specific Effects of Intermittent Preventive Treatment of Malaria with Artemisinin-Based Combination Therapies among Schoolchildren in Mali: A Three-Group Open Label Randomized Controlled Trial.
Chico, R Matthew
Cohee, Lauren M
Traore, Oumar B
Traore, Zoumana I
Doumbo, Ogobara K
Djimde, Abdoulaye A
JournalAmerican Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
PublisherAmerican Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
MetadataShow full item record
AbstractIntermittent preventive treatment of malaria among schoolchildren (IPTsc) reduces clinical malaria, asymptomatic parasitemia, and anemia. The effects of IPTsc by gender have not been studied longitudinally. We investigated overall IPTsc efficacy and conducted a secondary analysis to explore gender-specific differences. We enrolled schoolchildren aged 6–13 years in an open-label, rolling-cohort randomized controlled trial between September 2007 and February 2013 in Kolle, Mali. Annually, schoolchildren received two full-treatment courses of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) plus artesunate, or amodiaquine (AQ) plus artesunate, or no malaria treatment as control. We used mixed-effects generalized linear models to estimate differences in treatment outcomes across groups with interaction terms to explore gender-specific differences associated with Plasmodium falciparum infection, hemoglobin, and grade point averages (GPA) based on standardized testing. Overall, 305 students contributed 4,564 observations. Compared with the control, SP plus artesunate and AQ plus artesunate reduced the odds of P. falciparum infection (odds ratio [OR]: 0.33, 95% CI: 0.26–0.43; OR: 0.46, 95% CI: 0.36–0.59). We found strong evidence of increased mean hemoglobin concentrations (g/dL) in the SP plus artesunate group versus control (difference +0.37, 95% CI: 0.13–0.58). Collectively, schoolchildren given AQ plus artesunate had higher mean GPA (difference +0.36, 95% CI: 0.02–0.69) relative to control. Schoolgirls, compared with schoolboys, given SP plus artesunate had greater improvement in GPA (+0.50, 95% CI: −0.02 to 1.02 versus −0.27, 95% CI: −0.71 to 0.16); interaction P = 0.048, respectively. The IPTsc decreases P. falciparum infections in schoolchildren. Treatment regimens that include longer-acting drugs may be more effective at decreasing malaria-related anemia and improving educational outcomes as observed among girls in this setting.
Identifier to cite or link to this itemhttp://hdl.handle.net/10713/19611
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