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dc.contributor.authorMalayil, Leena
dc.contributor.authorChattopadhyay, Suhana
dc.contributor.authorMongodin, Emmanuel F
dc.contributor.authorSapkota, Amy R
dc.date.accessioned2022-08-15T13:05:50Z
dc.date.available2022-08-15T13:05:50Z
dc.date.issued2022-08-05
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10713/19568
dc.description.abstractAbstract: Young adults are increasingly using non-cigarette products, such as hookahs, since they are perceived as healthier alternatives to cigarette smoking. However, hookah users are exposed to not only carcinogenic compounds but also microorganisms that may play an active role in the development of both infectious and chronic diseases among users. Nevertheless, existing hookah research in this area has focused only on microorganisms that may be transferred to users through the smoking apparatus and not on bacterial communities associated with hookah tobacco. To address this knowledge gap, we conducted time-series experiments on commercially available hookah brands (Al Fakher (flavors: two apple, mint, and watermelon) and Fumari (flavors: white gummy bear, ambrosia, and mint chocolate chill)) stored under three different temperature and relative humidity conditions over 14 days. To characterize bacterial communities, the total DNA was extracted on days 0, 5, 9, and 14, PCR-amplified for the V3V4 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene, sequenced on the Illumina HiSeq platform, and analyzed using R. Diversity (alpha and beta) analyses revealed that the microbiotas of Fumari and Al Fakher products differed significantly and that flavor had a significant effect on the hookah microbiota. Overall, Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Sphingomonas, and Methylobacterium were the predominant bacterial taxa across all products. Additionally, we observed compositional differences between hookah brands across the 14-day incubation. These data suggest that the bacterial communities of hookah tobacco are diverse and differ across brands and flavors, which may have critical implications regarding exposures to specific bacteria among hookah users. Key points: • Commercial hookah products harbor diverse bacterial communities. • Brands and flavors impact the diversity of these communities. • Research on their viability and transmission to users’ respiratory tracts is needed. Graphical abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.] © 2022, The Author(s).en_US
dc.description.urihttps://doi.org/10.1007/s00253-022-12079-7en_US
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.publisherSpringer Natureen_US
dc.relationData concerning the samples included in this study are deposited in the NCBI BioProject database under BioProject accession number PRJNA641233.en_US
dc.relation.ispartofApplied Microbiology and Biotechnologyen_US
dc.rights© 2022. The Author(s).en_US
dc.subjectBacteriaen_US
dc.subjectHookahen_US
dc.subjectMicrobiomeen_US
dc.subjectShishaen_US
dc.subjectTobaccoen_US
dc.titleBacterial communities of hookah tobacco products are diverse and differ across brands and flavors.en_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.identifier.doi10.1007/s00253-022-12079-7
dc.identifier.pmid35927334
dc.source.journaltitleApplied microbiology and biotechnology
dc.source.countryGermany


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