The Chaperone System in Breast Cancer: Roles and Therapeutic Prospects of the Molecular Chaperones Hsp27, Hsp60, Hsp70, and Hsp90.
Conway de Macario, Everly
Macario, Alberto J L
JournalInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
MetadataShow full item record
AbstractBreast cancer (BC) is a major public health problem, with key pieces of information needed for developing preventive and curative measures still missing. For example, the participation of the chaperone system (CS) in carcinogenesis and anti-cancer responses is poorly understood, although it can be predicted to be a crucial factor in these mechanisms. The chief components of the CS are the molecular chaperones, and here we discuss four of them, Hsp27, Hsp60, Hsp70, and Hsp90, focusing on their pro-carcinogenic roles in BC and potential for developing anti-BC therapies. These chaperones can be targets of negative chaperonotherapy, namely the elimination/blocking/inhibition of the chaperone(s) functioning in favor of BC, using, for instance, Hsp inhibitors. The chaperones can also be employed in immunotherapy against BC as adjuvants, together with BC antigens. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) in BC diagnosis and management are also briefly discussed, considering their potential as easily accessible carriers of biomarkers and as shippers of anti-cancer agents amenable to manipulation and controlled delivery. The data surveyed from many laboratories reveal that, to enhance the understanding of the role of the CS in BS pathogenesis, one must consider the CS as a physiological system, encompassing diverse members throughout the body and interacting with the ubiquitin–proteasome system, the chaperone-mediated autophagy machinery, and the immune system (IS). An integrated view of the CS, including its functional partners and considering its highly dynamic nature with EVs transporting CS components to reach all the cell compartments in which they are needed, opens as yet unexplored pathways leading to carcinogenesis that are amenable to interference by anti-cancer treatments centered on CS components, such as the molecular chaperones.
Identifier to cite or link to this itemhttp://hdl.handle.net/10713/19497
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