Genomic Characteristics of Recently Recognized Vibrio cholerae El Tor Lineages Associated with Cholera in Bangladesh, 1991 to 2017.
AuthorMonir, Md Mamun
Colwell, Rita R
PublisherAmerican Society for Microbiology
MetadataShow full item record
AbstractComparative genomic analysis of Vibrio cholerae El Tor associated with endemic cholera in Asia revealed two distinct lineages, one dominant in Bangladesh and the other in India. An in-depth whole-genome study of V. cholerae El Tor strains isolated during endemic cholera in Bangladesh (1991 to 2017) included reference genome sequence data obtained online. Core genome phylogeny established using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) showed V. cholerae El Tor strains comprised two lineages, BD-1 and BD-2, which, according to Bayesian phylodynamic analysis, originated from paraphyletic group BD-0 around 1981. BD-1 and BD-2 lineages overlapped temporally but were negatively associated as causative agents of cholera during 2004 to 2017. Genome-wide association study (GWAS) revealed 140 SNPs and 31 indels, resulting in gene alleles unique to BD-1 and BD-2. Regression analysis of root to tip distance and year of isolation indicated early BD-0 strains at the base, whereas BD-1 and BD-2 subsequently emerged and progressed by accumulating SNPs. Pangenome analysis provided evidence of gene acquisition by both BD-1 and BD-2, of which six crucial proteins of known function were predominant in BD-2. BD-1 and BD-2 diverged and have distinctively different genomic traits, namely, heterogeneity in VSP-2, VPI-1, mobile elements, toxin encoding elements, and total gene abundance. In addition, the observed phage-inducible chromosomal island-like element (PLE1), and SXT ICE elements (ICETET) in BD-2 presumably provided a fitness advantage for the lineage to outcompete BD-1 as the etiological agent of endemic cholera in Bangladesh, with implications for global cholera epidemiology. IMPORTANCE Cholera is a global disease with specific reference to the Bay of Bengal Ganges Delta where Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor, the causative agent of the disease showed two circulating lineages, one dominant in Bangladesh and the other in India. Results of an in-depth genomic study of V. cholerae associated with endemic cholera during the past 27 years (1991 to 2017) indicate emergence and succession of the two lineages, BD-1 and BD-2, arising from a common ancestral paraphyletic group, BD-0, comprising the early strains and short-term evolution of the bacterium in Bangladesh. Among the two V. cholerae lineages, BD-2 supersedes BD-1 and is predominant in the most recent endemic cholera in Bangladesh. The BD-2 lineage contained significantly more SNPs and indels, and showed richness in gene abundance, including antimicrobial resistance genes, gene cassettes, and PLE to fight against bacteriophage infection, acquired over time. These findings have important epidemic implications on a global scale.
KeywordVibrio cholerae lineages
phage-inducible chromosomal island-like elements (PLE)
Identifier to cite or link to this itemhttp://hdl.handle.net/10713/18385