COVID-19 Infection Among Women in Iran Exposed vs Unexposed to Children Who Received Attenuated Poliovirus Used in Oral Polio Vaccine
Sajadi, Mohammad M
Gallo, Robert C
JournalJAMA Network Open
PublisherAmerican Medical Association
MetadataShow full item record
AbstractImportance: Live attenuated vaccines may provide short-term protection against infectious diseases through stimulation of the innate immune system. Objective: To evaluate whether passive exposure to live attenuated poliovirus is associated with diminished symptomatic infection with SARS-CoV-2. Design, setting, and participants: In a longitudinal cohort study involving 87 923 people conducted between March 20 and December 20, 2020, the incidence of COVID-19 was compared between 2 groups of aged-matched women with and without exposure to live attenuated poliovirus in the oral polio vaccine (OPV). Participants were people receiving health care services from the Petroleum Industry Health Organization and residing in 2 cities in Iran (ie, Ahwaz and Shiraz). Participants were women aged 18 to 48 years whose children were aged 18 months or younger and a group of age-matched women from the same residence who had had no potential exposure to OPV. Exposures: Indirect exposure to live attenuated poliovirus in OPV. Main outcomes and measures: Symptomatic COVID-19, diagnosed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Results: After applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 419 mothers (mean [SD] age, 35.5 [4.9] years) indirectly exposed to the OPV and 3771 age-matched women (mean [SD] age, 35.7 [5.3] years) who had no exposure to OPV were available for analysis. COVID-19 was diagnosed in 1319 of the 87 923 individuals in the study population (151 per 10 000 population) during the study period. None of the mothers whose children received OPV developed COVID-19 after a median follow-up of 141 days (IQR, 92-188 days; range, 1-270 days); 28 women (0.74%; 95% CI, 0.47%-1.02%) in the unexposed group were diagnosed with COVID-19 during the 9 months of the study. Point-by-point comparison of the survival curves of the exposed and unexposed groups found that indirect exposure to OPV was significantly associated with decreased COVID-19 acquisition; probability of remaining without infection was 1.000 (95% CI, 1.000-1.000) in the exposed group vs 0.993 (95% CI, 0.990-0.995) in the unexposed group after 9 months (P < .001). Conclusions and relevance: In this cohort study, indirect exposure to live attenuated poliovirus was associated with decreased symptomatic infection with COVID-19. Further study of the potential protective effect of OPV should be conducted, especially in nations where OPV is already in use for polio prevention and specific COVID-19 vaccines are delayed, less affordable, or fail to meet demand.
Identifier to cite or link to this itemhttp://hdl.handle.net/10713/17219
- Sequential inactivated (IPV) and live oral (OPV) poliovirus vaccines for preventing poliomyelitis.
- Authors: Ciapponi A, Bardach A, Rey Ares L, Glujovsky D, Cafferata ML, Cesaroni S, Bhatti A
- Issue date: 2019 Dec 5
- The safety and immunogenicity of two novel live attenuated monovalent (serotype 2) oral poliovirus vaccines in healthy adults: a double-blind, single-centre phase 1 study.
- Authors: Van Damme P, De Coster I, Bandyopadhyay AS, Revets H, Withanage K, De Smedt P, Suykens L, Oberste MS, Weldon WC, Costa-Clemens SA, Clemens R, Modlin J, Weiner AJ, Macadam AJ, Andino R, Kew OM, Konopka-Anstadt JL, Burns CC, Konz J, Wahid R, Gast C
- Issue date: 2019 Jul 13
- Immune response to an intercalated enhanced inactivated polio vaccine/oral polio vaccine programme in Israel: impact on the control of poliomyelitis.
- Authors: Swartz TA, Handsher R, Manor Y, Stoeckel P, Barkay A, Mendelson E, Leventhal A
- Issue date: 1998 Dec
- Anomalous observations on IPV and OPV vaccination.
- Authors: John TJ
- Issue date: 2001
- Childhood mortality after oral polio immunisation campaign in Guinea-Bissau.
- Authors: Aaby P, Hedegaard K, Sodemann M, Nhante E, Veirum JE, Jakobsen M, Lisse I, Jensen H, Sandström A
- Issue date: 2005 Feb 25