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AbstractCarotid artery calcification (CAC) is a well-known marker of atherosclerosis and is linked to a high rate of morbidity and mortality. CAC is divided into two types: intimal and medial calcifications, each with its own set of risk factors. Vascular calcification is now understood to be an active, enzymatically regulated process involving dystrophic calcification and endothelial dysfunction at an early stage. This causes a pathogenic inflammatory response, resulting in calcium phosphate deposition in the form of microcalcifications, which causes plaque formation, ultimately becoming unstable with sequelae of complications. If the inflammation goes away, hydroxyapatite crystal formation takes over, resulting in macro-calcifications that help to keep the plaque stable. As CAC can be asymptomatic, it is critical to identify it early using diagnostic imaging. The carotid artery calcification score is calculated using computed tomography angiography (CTA), which is a confirmatory test that enables the examination of plaque composition and computation of the carotid artery calcification score. Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), which is sensitive as CTA, duplex ultrasound (DUS), positron emission tomography, and computed tomography (PET-CT) imaging with (18) F-Sodium Fluoride, and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) are some of the other diagnostic imaging modalities used. The current therapeutic method starts with the best medical care and is advised for all CAC patients. Carotid endarterectomy and carotid stenting are two treatment options that have mixed results in terms of effectiveness and safety. When patient age and anatomy, operator expertise, and surgical risk are all considered, the agreement is that both techniques are equally beneficial.
Rights/TermsCopyright © 2021, Ahmed et al.
Identifier to cite or link to this itemhttp://hdl.handle.net/10713/17216
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