One dose of COVID-19 nanoparticle vaccine REVC-128 provides protection against SARS-CoV-2 challenge at two weeks post immunization
Torres, Jonathan L
Ry, Alex Van
Jackson, Abigail M
Ward, Andrew B
JournalEmerging Microbes & Infections
PublisherTaylor and Francis Inc.
MetadataShow full item record
AbstractA COVID-19 vaccine with capability to induce early protection is needed to efficiently eliminate viral spread. Here, we demonstrate the development of a nanoparticle vaccine candidate, REVC-128, in which multiple trimeric spike ectodomain with glycine (G) at position 614 were multimerized onto a nanoparticle. In-vitro characterization of this vaccine confirms its structural and antigenic integrity. In-vivo immunogenicity evaluation in mice indicates that a single dose of this vaccine induces potent serum neutralizing antibody titer at two weeks post immunization, which is significantly higher than titer induced by trimeric spike protein without nanoparticle presentation. The comparison of serum binding to spike subunits between animals immunized by spike with and without nanoparticle presentation indicates that nanoparticle prefers the display of spike RBD (Receptor-Binding Domain) over S2 subunit, likely resulting in a more neutralizing but less cross-reactive antibody response. Moreover, a Syrian golden hamster in-vivo model for SARS-CoV-2 virus challenge was implemented at two weeks post a single dose of REVC-128 immunization. The results showed that vaccination protects hamsters against SARS-CoV-2 virus challenge with evidence of steady body weight, suppressed viral loads and alleviation of tissue damage for protected animals, compared with ∼10% weight loss, high viral loads and tissue damage in unprotected animals. Furthermore, the data showed that vaccine REVC-128 is thermostable at up to 37°C for at least 4 weeks. These findings, along with history of safety for protein vaccines, suggest that the REVC-128 is a safe, stable and efficacious single-shot vaccine candidate to induce the earliest protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection.
KeywordAntibody-dependent Enhancement (ADE)
Identifier to cite or link to this itemhttp://hdl.handle.net/10713/17007
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A Deferred-Vaccination Design to Assess Durability of COVID-19 Vaccine Effect After the Placebo Group Is VaccinatedFollmann, Dean; Fintzi, Jonathan; Fay, Michael P; Janes, Holly E; Baden, Lindsey R; El Sahly, Hana M; Fleming, Thomas R; Mehrotra, Devan V; Carpp, Lindsay N; Juraska, Michal; et al. (American College of Physicians, 2021-04-13)Multiple candidate vaccines to prevent COVID-19 have entered large-scale phase 3 placebo-controlled randomized clinical trials, and several have demonstrated substantial short-term efficacy. At some point after demonstration of substantial efficacy, placebo recipients should be offered the efficacious vaccine from their trial, which will occur before longer-term efficacy and safety are known. The absence of a placebo group could compromise assessment of longer-term vaccine effects. However, by continuing follow-up after vaccination of the placebo group, this study shows that placebo-controlled vaccine efficacy can be mathematically derived by assuming that the benefit of vaccination over time has the same profile for the original vaccine recipients and the original placebo recipients after their vaccination. Although this derivation provides less precise estimates than would be obtained by a standard trial where the placebo group remains unvaccinated, this proposed approach allows estimation of longer-term effect, including durability of vaccine efficacy and whether the vaccine eventually becomes harmful for some. Deferred vaccination, if done open-label, may lead to riskier behavior in the unblinded original vaccine group, confounding estimates of long-term vaccine efficacy. Hence, deferred vaccination via blinded crossover, where the vaccine group receives placebo and vice versa, would be the preferred way to assess vaccine durability and potential delayed harm. Deferred vaccination allows placebo recipients timely access to the vaccine when it would no longer be proper to maintain them on placebo, yet still allows important insights about immunologic and clinical effectiveness over time.
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