A Nonlethal Murine Flame Burn Model Leads to a Transient Reduction in Host Defenses and Enhanced Susceptibility to Lethal Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infection
Baliban, Scott M
Kambouris, Adrienne R
Vogel, Stefanie N
Cross, Alan S
JournalInfection and Immunity
PublisherAmerican Society for Microbiology
MetadataShow full item record
AbstractOf the 486,000 burn injuries that required medical treatment in the United States in 2016, 40,000 people were hospitalized, with >3,000 fatalities. After burn injury, humans are at increased risk of sepsis and mortality from infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an opportunistic pathogen. We hypothesize that systemic events were initiated from the burn that increased the host's susceptibility to P. aeruginosa. A nonlethal 10% total body surface area (TBSA), full-thickness flame burn was performed in CD-1 mice without and with subsequent P. aeruginosa (strain M2) infection. The 50% lethal dose for subcutaneous infection with P. aeruginosa M2 at the burn site immediately after the burn decreased by 6 log, with mortality occurring between 18 and 26 h, compared with P. aeruginosa-infected mice without burn injury. Bacteria in distal organs were detected by 18 h, concurrent with the onset of clinical symptoms. Serum proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6 [IL-6], IL-1β, gamma interferon, and tumor necrosis factor alpha) and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 were first detected at 12 h postburn with infection and continued to increase until death. Directly after burn alone, serum levels of HMGB1, a danger-associated molecular pattern and TLR4 agonist, transiently increased to 50 ng/ml before returning to 20 ng/ml. Burn with P. aeruginosa infection increased serum HMGB1 concentrations >10-fold (250 ng/ml) at the time of death. This HMGB1-rich serum stimulated TLR4-mediated NF-κB activation in a TLR4 reporter cell line. Treatment of infected burned mice with P5779, a peptide inhibitor of HMGB1, increased the mean survival from 23 to 42 h (P < 0.0001). We conclude that the high level of serum HMGB1, which preceded the increase in proinflammatory cytokines, is associated with postburn mortality.
Identifier to cite or link to this itemhttp://hdl.handle.net/10713/16800
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