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dc.contributor.authorColloca, Luana
dc.contributor.authorThomas, Sharon
dc.contributor.authorYin, Margaret
dc.contributor.authorHaycock, Nathaniel R
dc.contributor.authorWang, Yang
dc.date.accessioned2021-10-04T16:02:05Z
dc.date.available2021-10-04T16:02:05Z
dc.date.issued2021-09-23
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10713/16777
dc.description.abstractIntroduction: The unknown and uncontrollable situation of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic may have triggered changes in pain, anxiety, and depression along with a perception of nonspecific COVID-19 symptoms. Objectives: We determined how anxiety, depression, and pain outcomes varied during the “Stay-at-Home” order compared with the prepandemic period and whether nonspecific COVID-19 symptoms would occur. Methods: We conducted an online survey to opportunistically reassess clinical anxiety, depression, pain intensity, and pain interference while controlling for somatic symptom severity during the prepandemic and Stay-at-Home order period. During the Stay-at-Home period, anxiety, depression, pain intensity, and pain interference were reassessed. Coping strategies were assessed as a critical factor influencing pain behaviors. In addition, we explored the occurrence of nonspecific COVID-19 symptoms with an ad hoc survey referencing the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention publicly available COVID-19 symptoms. Results: We observed a significant increase in depression and anxiety levels during the Stay-at-Home period. Coping strategy changes (eg, increased exercise) were linked to lower pain severity and interference which improved overall. Participants who self-reported nonspecific COVID-19 symptoms had higher prepandemic depression. Among the 72 participants not diagnosed with COVID-19, 70.8% of the participants experienced symptoms resembling those associated with COVID-19. Conclusion: We suggest the parallel between pain outcome improvement and worsening anxiety and depression during the Stay-at-Home order might reflect a shift in symptoms, indicating that those patients with underlying mood disorders may require more help than they did before the pandemic.en_US
dc.description.urihttps://doi.org/10.1097/PR9.0000000000000958en_US
dc.description.urihttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/pmc8476053/en_US
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.publisherWolters Kluwer Healthen_US
dc.relation.ispartofPain Reportsen_US
dc.rightsCopyright © 2021 The Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. on behalf of The International Association for the Study of Pain.en_US
dc.subjectExpectationsen_US
dc.subjectIllness behaviorsen_US
dc.subjectMood disorderen_US
dc.subjectNoceboen_US
dc.subjectTemporomandibular disorderen_US
dc.titlePain experience and mood disorders during the lockdown of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States: an opportunistic studyen_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.identifier.doi10.1097/PR9.0000000000000958
dc.identifier.pmid34589641
dc.source.volume6
dc.source.issue3
dc.source.beginpagee958
dc.source.endpage
dc.source.countryUnited States


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