Pain experience and mood disorders during the lockdown of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States: an opportunistic study
PublisherWolters Kluwer Health
MetadataShow full item record
AbstractIntroduction: The unknown and uncontrollable situation of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic may have triggered changes in pain, anxiety, and depression along with a perception of nonspecific COVID-19 symptoms. Objectives: We determined how anxiety, depression, and pain outcomes varied during the “Stay-at-Home” order compared with the prepandemic period and whether nonspecific COVID-19 symptoms would occur. Methods: We conducted an online survey to opportunistically reassess clinical anxiety, depression, pain intensity, and pain interference while controlling for somatic symptom severity during the prepandemic and Stay-at-Home order period. During the Stay-at-Home period, anxiety, depression, pain intensity, and pain interference were reassessed. Coping strategies were assessed as a critical factor influencing pain behaviors. In addition, we explored the occurrence of nonspecific COVID-19 symptoms with an ad hoc survey referencing the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention publicly available COVID-19 symptoms. Results: We observed a significant increase in depression and anxiety levels during the Stay-at-Home period. Coping strategy changes (eg, increased exercise) were linked to lower pain severity and interference which improved overall. Participants who self-reported nonspecific COVID-19 symptoms had higher prepandemic depression. Among the 72 participants not diagnosed with COVID-19, 70.8% of the participants experienced symptoms resembling those associated with COVID-19. Conclusion: We suggest the parallel between pain outcome improvement and worsening anxiety and depression during the Stay-at-Home order might reflect a shift in symptoms, indicating that those patients with underlying mood disorders may require more help than they did before the pandemic.
Rights/TermsCopyright © 2021 The Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. on behalf of The International Association for the Study of Pain.
Identifier to cite or link to this itemhttp://hdl.handle.net/10713/16777
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