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dc.contributor.authorHui, Steve C N
dc.contributor.authorMikkelsen, Mark
dc.contributor.authorZöllner, Helge J
dc.contributor.authorAhluwalia, Vishwadeep
dc.contributor.authorAlcauter, Sarael
dc.contributor.authorBaltusis, Laima
dc.contributor.authorBarany, Deborah A
dc.contributor.authorBarlow, Laura R
dc.contributor.authorBecker, Robert
dc.contributor.authorBerman, Jeffrey I
dc.contributor.authorBerrington, Adam
dc.contributor.authorBhattacharyya, Pallab K
dc.contributor.authorBlicher, Jakob Udby
dc.contributor.authorBogner, Wolfgang
dc.contributor.authorBrown, Mark S
dc.contributor.authorCalhoun, Vince D
dc.contributor.authorCastillo, Ryan
dc.contributor.authorCecil, Kim M
dc.contributor.authorChoi, Yeo Bi
dc.contributor.authorChu, Winnie C W
dc.contributor.authorClarke, William T
dc.contributor.authorCraven, Alexander R
dc.contributor.authorCuypers, Koen
dc.contributor.authorDacko, Michael
dc.contributor.authorde la Fuente-Sandoval, Camilo
dc.contributor.authorDesmond, Patricia
dc.contributor.authorDomagalik, Aleksandra
dc.contributor.authorDumont, Julien
dc.contributor.authorDuncan, Niall W
dc.contributor.authorDydak, Ulrike
dc.contributor.authorDyke, Katherine
dc.contributor.authorEdmondson, David A
dc.contributor.authorEnde, Gabriele
dc.contributor.authorErsland, Lars
dc.contributor.authorEvans, C John
dc.contributor.authorFermin, Alan S R
dc.contributor.authorFerretti, Antonio
dc.contributor.authorFillmer, Ariane
dc.contributor.authorGong, Tao
dc.contributor.authorGreenhouse, Ian
dc.contributor.authorGrist, James T
dc.contributor.authorGu, Meng
dc.contributor.authorHarris, Ashley D
dc.contributor.authorHat, Katarzyna
dc.contributor.authorHeba, Stefanie
dc.contributor.authorHeckova, Eva
dc.contributor.authorHegarty, John P
dc.contributor.authorHeise, Kirstin-Friederike
dc.contributor.authorJacobson, Aaron
dc.contributor.authorJansen, Jacobus F A
dc.contributor.authorJenkins, Christopher W
dc.contributor.authorJohnston, Stephen J
dc.contributor.authorJuchem, Christoph
dc.contributor.authorKangarlu, Alayar
dc.contributor.authorKerr, Adam B
dc.contributor.authorLandheer, Karl
dc.contributor.authorLange, Thomas
dc.contributor.authorLee, Phil
dc.contributor.authorLevendovszky, Swati Rane
dc.contributor.authorLimperopoulos, Catherine
dc.contributor.authorLiu, Feng
dc.contributor.authorLloyd, William
dc.contributor.authorLythgoe, David J
dc.contributor.authorMachizawa, Maro G
dc.contributor.authorMacMillan, Erin L
dc.contributor.authorMaddock, Richard J
dc.contributor.authorManzhurtsev, Andrei V
dc.contributor.authorMartinez-Gudino, María L
dc.contributor.authorMiller, Jack J
dc.contributor.authorMirzakhanian, Heline
dc.contributor.authorMoreno-Ortega, Marta
dc.contributor.authorMullins, Paul G
dc.contributor.authorNear, Jamie
dc.contributor.authorNoeske, Ralph
dc.contributor.authorNordhøy, Wibeke
dc.contributor.authorOeltzschner, Georg
dc.contributor.authorOsorio-Duran, Raul
dc.contributor.authorOtaduy, Maria C G
dc.contributor.authorPasaye, Erick H
dc.contributor.authorPeeters, Ronald
dc.contributor.authorPeltier, Scott J
dc.contributor.authorPilatus, Ulrich
dc.contributor.authorPolomac, Nenad
dc.contributor.authorPorges, Eric C
dc.contributor.authorPradhan, Subechhya
dc.contributor.authorPrisciandaro, James Joseph
dc.contributor.authorPuts, Nicolaas A
dc.contributor.authorRae, Caroline D
dc.contributor.authorReyes-Madrigal, Francisco
dc.contributor.authorRoberts, Timothy P L
dc.contributor.authorRobertson, Caroline E
dc.contributor.authorRosenberg, Jens T
dc.contributor.authorRotaru, Diana-Georgiana
dc.contributor.authorO'Gorman Tuura, Ruth L
dc.contributor.authorSaleh, Muhammad G
dc.contributor.authorSandberg, Kristian
dc.contributor.authorSangill, Ryan
dc.contributor.authorSchembri, Keith
dc.contributor.authorSchrantee, Anouk
dc.contributor.authorSemenova, Natalia A
dc.contributor.authorSingel, Debra
dc.contributor.authorSitnikov, Rouslan
dc.contributor.authorSmith, Jolinda
dc.contributor.authorSong, Yulu
dc.contributor.authorStark, Craig
dc.contributor.authorStoffers, Diederick
dc.contributor.authorSwinnen, Stephan P
dc.contributor.authorTain, Rongwen
dc.contributor.authorTanase, Costin
dc.contributor.authorTapper, Sofie
dc.contributor.authorTegenthoff, Martin
dc.contributor.authorThiel, Thomas
dc.contributor.authorThioux, Marc
dc.contributor.authorTruong, Peter
dc.contributor.authorvan Dijk, Pim
dc.contributor.authorVella, Nolan
dc.contributor.authorVidyasagar, Rishma
dc.contributor.authorVovk, Andrej
dc.contributor.authorWang, Guangbin
dc.contributor.authorWestlye, Lars T
dc.contributor.authorWilbur, Timothy K
dc.contributor.authorWilloughby, William R
dc.contributor.authorWilson, Martin
dc.contributor.authorWittsack, Hans-Jörg
dc.contributor.authorWoods, Adam J
dc.contributor.authorWu, Yen-Chien
dc.contributor.authorXu, Junqian
dc.contributor.authorLopez, Maria Yanez
dc.contributor.authorYeung, David K W
dc.contributor.authorZhao, Qun
dc.contributor.authorZhou, Xiaopeng
dc.contributor.authorZupan, Gasper
dc.contributor.authorEdden, Richard A E
dc.contributor.authorNakajima, Shinichiro Luke
dc.contributor.authorHonda, Shiori
dc.date.accessioned2021-08-05T18:00:50Z
dc.date.available2021-08-05T18:00:50Z
dc.date.issued2021-07-24
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10713/16307
dc.description.abstractPurpose: Heating of gradient coils and passive shim components is a common cause of instability in the B0 field, especially when gradient intensive sequences are used. The aim of the study was to set a benchmark for typical drift encountered during MR spectroscopy (MRS) to assess the need for real-time field-frequency locking on MRI scanners by comparing field drift data from a large number of sites. Method: A standardized protocol was developed for 80 participating sites using 99 3T MR scanners from 3 major vendors. Phantom water signals were acquired before and after an EPI sequence. The protocol consisted of: minimal preparatory imaging; a short pre-fMRI PRESS; a ten-minute fMRI acquisition; and a long post-fMRI PRESS acquisition. Both pre- and post-fMRI PRESS were non-water suppressed. Real-time frequency stabilization/adjustment was switched off when appropriate. Sixty scanners repeated the protocol for a second dataset. In addition, a three-hour post-fMRI MRS acquisition was performed at one site to observe change of gradient temperature and drift rate. Spectral analysis was performed using MATLAB. Frequency drift in pre-fMRI PRESS data were compared with the first 5:20 minutes and the full 30:00 minutes of data after fMRI. Median (interquartile range) drifts were measured and showed in violin plot. Paired t-tests were performed to compare frequency drift pre- and post-fMRI. A simulated in vivo spectrum was generated using FID-A to visualize the effect of the observed frequency drifts. The simulated spectrum was convolved with the frequency trace for the most extreme cases. Impacts of frequency drifts on NAA and GABA were also simulated as a function of linear drift. Data from the repeated protocol were compared with the corresponding first dataset using Pearson's and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). Results: Of the data collected from 99 scanners, 4 were excluded due to various reasons. Thus, data from 95 scanners were ultimately analyzed. For the first 5:20 min (64 transients), median (interquartile range) drift was 0.44 (1.29) Hz before fMRI and 0.83 (1.29) Hz after. This increased to 3.15 (4.02) Hz for the full 30 min (360 transients) run. Average drift rates were 0.29 Hz/min before fMRI and 0.43 Hz/min after. Paired t-tests indicated that drift increased after fMRI, as expected (p < 0.05). Simulated spectra convolved with the frequency drift showed that the intensity of the NAA singlet was reduced by up to 26%, 44 % and 18% for GE, Philips and Siemens scanners after fMRI, respectively. ICCs indicated good agreement between datasets acquired on separate days. The single site long acquisition showed drift rate was reduced to 0.03 Hz/min approximately three hours after fMRI. Discussion: This study analyzed frequency drift data from 95 3T MRI scanners. Median levels of drift were relatively low (5-min average under 1 Hz), but the most extreme cases suffered from higher levels of drift. The extent of drift varied across scanners which both linear and nonlinear drifts were observed.en_US
dc.description.urihttps://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2021.118430en_US
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.publisherElsevier Inc.en_US
dc.relation.ispartofNeuroImageen_US
dc.rightsCopyright © 2021. Published by Elsevier Inc.en_US
dc.subject3Ten_US
dc.subjectFrequency driften_US
dc.subjectMagnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)en_US
dc.subjectMulti-siteen_US
dc.subjectMulti-vendoren_US
dc.subjectPressen_US
dc.titleFrequency drift in MR spectroscopy at 3Ten_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.identifier.doi10.1016/j.neuroimage.2021.118430
dc.identifier.pmid34314848
dc.source.volume241
dc.source.beginpage118430
dc.source.endpage
dc.source.countryUnited States


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