Anti-SARS-CoV-2 immune responses in patients receiving an allogeneic stem cell or organ transplant
Avila, Stephanie V.
Hardy, Nancy M.
Mause, Erica Vander
Mannuel, Heather D.
Rapoport, Aaron P.
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AbstractPatients after autologous (autoSCT) and allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT) are at an increased risk of COVID-19-related morbidity and mortality, compounded by an immune system weakened by the underlying malignancy and prior treatments. Allogeneic transplantation, including stem cell and solid organ transplants, requires intensive immunosuppressive prophylaxis, which may further undermine the development of a protective vaccine-induced anti-viral immunity. Herein, we report on short- and long-term antiviral immune responses in two peri-stem cell transplant recipients and a third patient who received a COVID-19 vaccination after kidney transplantation. Our data indicate that: (1) patients post-alloSCT may be able to mount an anti-COVID-19 immune response; however, a sufficient time interval between transplant and exposure may be of critical importance; (2) alloSCT recipients with preexisting anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunity are at risk for losing protective humoral immunity following transplantation, particularly if the stem-cell donor lacks antiviral immunity, e.g., vaccine-derived immunity; and (3) some post-transplant patients are completely unable to build an immune response to a COVID-19 vaccine, perhaps based on the prophylactic suppression of T cell immunity.
KeywordAllogeneic stem cell transplant
Identifier to cite or link to this itemhttp://hdl.handle.net/10713/16278