Human Beta-Defensin 2 and 3 Inhibit HIV-1 Replication in Macrophages
JournalFrontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
PublisherFrontiers Media S.A.
MetadataShow full item record
AbstractHuman beta-defensins (hBDs) are broad-spectrum antimicrobial peptides, secreted by epithelial cells of the skin and mucosae, and astrocytes, which we and others have shown to inhibit HIV-1 in primary CD4+ T cells. Although loss of CD4+ T cells contributes to mucosal immune dysfunction, macrophages are a major source of persistence and spread of HIV and also contribute to the development of various HIV-associated complications. We hypothesized that, besides T cells, hBDs could protect macrophages from HIV. Our data in primary human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) in vitro show that hBD2 and hBD3 inhibit HIV replication in a dose-dependent manner. We determined that hBD2 neither alters surface expression of HIV receptors nor induces expression of anti-HIV cytokines or beta-chemokines in MDM. Studies using a G-protein signaling antagonist in a single-cycle reporter virus system showed that hBD2 suppresses HIV at an early post-entry stage via G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR)-mediated signaling. We find that MDM express the shared chemokine-hBD receptors CCR2 and CCR6, albeit at variable levels among donors. However, cell surface expression analyses show that neither of these receptors is necessary for hBD2-mediated HIV inhibition, suggesting that hBD2 can signal via additional receptor(s). Our data also illustrate that hBD2 treatment was associated with increased expression of APOBEC3A and 3G antiretroviral restriction factors in MDM. These findings suggest that hBD2 inhibits HIV in MDM via more than one CCR thus adding to the potential of using β-defensins in preventive and therapeutic approaches.
Rights/TermsCopyright © 2021 Bharucha, Sun, Lu, Gartner and Garzino-Demo.
Identifier to cite or link to this itemhttp://hdl.handle.net/10713/16216
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