Immunopathology of Chronic Hepatitis B Infection: Role of Innate and Adaptive Immune Response in Disease Progression
JournalInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
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AbstractMore than 250 million people are living with chronic hepatitis B despite the availability of highly effective vaccines and oral antivirals. Although innate and adaptive immune cells play crucial roles in controlling hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, they are also accountable for inflammation and subsequently cause liver pathologies. During the initial phase of HBV infection, innate immunity is triggered leading to antiviral cytokines production, followed by activation and intrahepatic recruitment of the adaptive immune ersystem resulting in successful virus elimination. In chronic HBV infection, significant eralterations in both innate and adaptive immunity including expansion of regulatory cells, overexpression of co-inhibitory receptors, presence of abundant inflammatory mediators, and modifications in immune cell derived exosome release and function occurs, which overpower antiviral response leading to persistent viral infection and subsequent immune patholo-gies associated with disease progression towards fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. In this review, we discuss the current knowledge of innate and adaptive immune cells transformations that are associated with immunopathogenesis and disease outcome in CHB patients. © 2021 by the authors.
Identifier to cite or link to this itemhttp://hdl.handle.net/10713/15869