Strategies for enhancement of live-attenuated salmonella-based carrier vaccine immunogenicity
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AbstractThe use of live-attenuated bacterial vaccines as carriers for the mucosal delivery of foreign antigens to stimulate the mucosal immune system was first proposed over three decades ago. This novel strategy aimed to induce immunity against at least two distinct pathogens using a single bivalent carrier vaccine. It was first tested using a live-attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi strain in clinical trials in 1984, with excellent humoral immune responses against the carrier strain but only modest responses elicited against the foreign antigen. Since then, clinical trials with addi-tional Salmonella-based carrier vaccines have been conducted. As with the original trial, only modest foreign antigen-specific immunity was achieved in most cases, despite the incorporation of incre-mental improvements in antigen expression technologies and carrier design over the years. In this review, we will attempt to deconstruct carrier vaccine immunogenicity in humans by examining the basis of bacterial immunity in the human gastrointestinal tract and how the gut detects and re-sponds to pathogens versus benign commensal organisms. Carrier vaccine design will then be ex-plored to determine the feasibility of retaining as many characteristics of a pathogen as possible to elicit robust carrier and foreign antigen-specific immunity, while avoiding over-stimulation of un-acceptably reactogenic inflammatory responses. Copyright 2021 by the authors.
SponsorsFunding: J.E.G. was supported in the preparation of this manuscript by grants from the National Institutes of Health, 1R01AI095309-01A1 and 1R56AI125388-01A1.
Identifier to cite or link to this itemhttp://hdl.handle.net/10713/15237